Instructional materials utilization and students’ Academic Performance in Biology in secondary schools
The main aim of this study was to examine instructional materials utilization and students’ Academic Performance in Biology in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area. Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The reviewed of the related literature was carried out under the following sub-headings: Concept of instructional materials which include visual, audio, and audio-visual materials, instructional materials utilization and academic performance of students, students’ gender and academic performance of students, and summary of reviewed literature.
Quasi-experimental research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consisted of all the Biology students in the study Area. The total population of the study was two thousand three hundred and twelve (2,312) SS2 Biology students in all the 13 public secondary schools in the study area (source: Uyo Local Education Authority). Sample size of one hundred and twenty (120) SS2 Biology students was drawn from four schools using simple random sampling technique. The instruments used in gathering data for this study was Biology Achievement Test (BAT).
The method used in analyzing the data collected was independent t-test statistical method. The result revealed that there is a significant difference in academic Performance of students taught Biology using instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials. Students taught Biology using instructional materials performed better than their counterparts who were taught without instructional materials. However, it was also revealed that no significant difference exists between the academic Performance of male and female Biology students taught using instructional materials.
1.1 Background to the Study
Science is the bedrock of technological development of a nation; for a nation to be developed, science subjects must be taught in schools which Biology is among. Biology is a subset of science taught by using different methods which employ the use of all sense organs including Olfactory (smell), Gustatory (taste), auditory (hearing), Kinesthetic (skin), and optical (seeing) or which only the application of theory in teaching and learning could not yield 100% accuracy without the use of instruction materials. Thus, effective teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools with the use of instructional materials is very necessary if Biology teachers must gainfully achieve the educational goals. According to Nzewi and Nwasu (2010) the teaching of Biology cannot be effective without interaction between the teachers, students and the environmental instructional materials. Therefore, it is called for the use of instructional materials.
Instructional materials refer to those materials or tools which could be used in the teaching/learning situation in order to enhance in the achievement of educational objectives. These materials are categorized into two categories namely: Human instructional materials and materials instructional materials. Human Biology instructional materials comprise all human being or resourceful individuals who in one way or the other aid effective utilization of materials instructional materials in Biology. These human instructional materials include teachers, learners, instructional materials, laboratory assistant and technologists, together with other non-professional personnel (Okoli and Osuafor 2016). On the other hand, materials instructional materials and facilities also known as instructional facilities, teaching aids and instructional media are those material available to the teacher for teaching and learning.
Instructional materials can therefore be said to be supplies of teachers, learners, laboratory assistant/technologist, instructional materials and other necessary devices made available to the school in order to increase the wealth of knowledge which gives help, support in the teaching and learning process in secondary schools. Umeh (2014) refers to facilities as those materials or tools that can be used to enhance or improve educational programs and promotes teaching. Ihaurulam (2018) observed that there are inadequate instructional materials for teaching and learning of science subjects in many public secondary schools in Nigeria. He further stated that where there are little facilities available, most of the available instructional materials are not in good condition. That is majority of the available instructional materials are not functional.
Ekpo (2015) opined that instructional aids perform specific functions in learning situation. Such functions range from simplifying teaching to making teaching effective. One of such instructional aids is television. This is the production of television programme directed towards helping students of a specific target population achieve specific instructional objectives. This could be through transmission of educational objectives in the television which can be stored in video, compact disc (CD) and digital video disc (DVD) and used to teach students repeatedly till they gain mastery of what is being taught.
According to Ibe (2016) instructional materials could be classified into the following categories; visual materials, audio materials, audio-visual materials, printed materials, non-printed materials, and projected materials. Instructional materials in the classroom can be classified into those that appeal to the sense of sight (visual instructional materials) and those which appeal to the sense of learning (audio Instructional materials). Some instructional materials moreover, combine both features, which is classified as audio-visual instructional materials (Prade, 2015). The use of audio-visual aids is preferred as they are considered as 80% of the whole teaching and learning (Jadal, 2011). They keep the individual learner focus on what is being taught by the teacher in the classroom session.
Instructional materials utilization makes a lesson more interesting and memorable experience not only for the learners but the teacher as well. They play a vibrant role in focusing the attention of individual students towards the teacher or the topic. Human beings have five senses which are doorways for effective learning especially seeing, hearing and touching which bring maximum knowledge for the individual. Research has shown that people remember 10% of what they hear, 10% of what they read and 80% of what they do. Therefore, the aim of this research work is to examine instructional materials utilization and students’ academic performance in Biology.
Instructional materials utilization and students’ Academic Performance in Biology in secondary schools
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Biology remains one of the core science subject offered in Senior Secondary Schools by science students. However, performance of students in this subject both in internal and external examinations has not been very impressive. Many workers and stakeholders have related this poor performance on a number of factors including non-utilization of teaching aids by the teachers. It is on this premise that the study is being carried out to determine the influence of instructional materials utilization on Academic Performance of Biology Students.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to examine instructional materials utilization and students’ Academic Performance in Biology in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area.
Specifically, the study seeks to:
- Access the difference in academic Performance of Biology students taught using instructional materials and those taught without using instructional materials.
- Determine the difference in academic Performance of male and female Biology students taught using instructional materials.
1.4 Research Hypothesis
The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
- There is no significant difference in academic Performance of students taught Biology using instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials.
- There is no significant difference in academic Performance of male and female Biology students taught using instructional materials.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be of great benefit in the following ways; it will enhance the learning processes of the students and thereby improve on their overall academic achievement. It will increase the motivation of the students, add clarity to the topics taught and make learning more interesting. The study will help to sensitize teacher and staff of Secondary Schools who teach biology of the important roles in promoting the application of instructional materials in teaching and learning. This is because it will provide a basis for them to understand the need for their complimentary roles in encouraging and supporting the application of instructional materials.
1.6 Delimitation of the Study
The scope of this research study is delimited to instructional materials utilization and students’ Academic Performance in Biology in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area. The target population is all the SS2 Biology students in the study area.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The following challenges were confronted by the researcher in the course of conducting this research: Financial Constraint: Due to the high cost of transportation of visiting all the selected schools for this study, thus finance was a great problem to the researcher. Time Constraint: The period of the time given for the completion of the study was not sufficient based on the fact that the researcher had other school activities to carry out as at the time of the study. Poor road network: Most of the schools visited by the researcher were located in the rural areas
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms were used in the study;
Instructional Materials: These refer to those materials that could be used by teachers and students in the teaching and learning situation in order to achieve the educational goals.
Utilization: It is the process of putting things to use.
Gender: This is either sexes (Male and Female), especially when considered with reference to social and cultural differences rather than biological one.
Academic Performance: Is the outcome of education, the extent to which student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals.
Biology: This is the scientific study of life and structure of plant and animals.