The Influence of Application of Audio-Visual Aids in Teaching of Biology in Secondary
This study was carried out to investigate the influence of application of audio-visual aids in the teaching of biology in secondary schools in Onna local Government area of Akwa Ibom State and the population consists of all the senior secondary two (SS2) students offering biology in the study area. The total population was one thousand four hundred and three (1403) students. Three research questions and three research hypotheses were postulated to guide the study.
The study employed quasi-experimental research work. The sample size for this study was one hundred (100) biology students. The instrument used in gathering the needed data for the study was the researcher’s made questionnaire called” Application of audio-visual Aids and the teaching of biology Questionnaire (AAVATBQ). Data obtained was analyzed using independent t-test statistical method.
The findings revealed that the use of audio-visual aids significantly influence the teaching of biology in secondary schools in Onna local government area. Based on the result of the findings, it was recommended among others that teachers should use audio-visual aids in the teaching and learning of biology as this will help to arouse students’ interest towards the learning of the Biology.
Background to the Study
Teaching and learning processes are very crucial at all levels of educational development. If well planned and directed, they are the keys to success and progress of individual. Therefore, best methods have to be used in order to enhance effective teaching and learning.
Audio-visual aids according to Dike (2009) do not only increase the motivation of the teachers and learners; they add clarity to the topic taught and make learning more interesting. Permanent learning according to Njoku ((2014) is the goal of education in that the learners should be able to retain what is taught audio-visual aids make learning more permanent since they appeal to more than one sense.
Ode and Omokaro (2012) revealed that learners retain most of what they hear, see and feel than what they merely hear. This concept bears credence to the old chines adage which says ‘what I hear I forget what, what I see I remember and what I I know Arnett (2010, as cited in Claiborne and Drewery, 2013).
A visual instruction encourages the use of audio-visual aids to make abstract ideas more concrete to the learners. Therefore, the teacher’s duty is to make learning live, not just something to remember but part of living experience. This can be done effectively by employing the use of audio-visual aids in teaching and learning of biology as a mean of imparting knowledge to learners. Educators have come to realize that the most effective teaching and learning take place when an individual has direct experience with the subject under study, in order word, learners learn best by doing.
The Influence of Application of Audio-Visual Aids in Teaching of Biology in Secondary
However, there has been no consensus on the workability or otherwise of the use of audio-visual aids in teaching and learning of numerous work done by researchers and authors of reputes. On the contrary, there has been a surge in the number of people who feel worried about the negative aspects in the use of audio-visual aids.
At present, education is under constant changing and multiplicity in policies, methods and procedure can be clearly observed. At different levels of education system change is always welcome as per required but change should always being harmonize with certain aspect that is, society, religion, state etc.
The present situation calls for comprehensive change in almost every level of education so that practical and dynamic approach can be given to existing and new field of education. The crux of this modern education is to awaken the hidden curiosity and interest of the learner, nourishing his or her behaviour, attitudes and believes in order to develop basic and essential skills of lifelong learning and ability to think critically and in beneficial manner.
Students should be given confidence to ask, inquire, explore and be creative and initiators. In fact an inquisitive mind is the beginning to lifelong learning that surely leads to success. But in recent year the superiority is shifted towards students. Audio-visual aids make a lesson or lecture more interesting and a memorable experience not only for students but for teachers as well as they play a vibrant role in focusing the attention of individual student towards the teacher or the topic.
They appeal to the senses especially hearing and looking. It is not wrong to say that human senses are doorways to acquire knowledge, therefore, when something appeals to senses curiosity increases which lead to clear and concrete understanding of the concept. It was on the basis of the above observation that the study was carried out to determine the influence of audio-visual aids in the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Onna local Government Area.
Statement of the Problem
As a result of advancement and development of modern technology varieties instructional materials can be used to make learning more vivid and effective. This means that students can perform better whenever they are taught with these instructional materials particularly audio-visual aids as their comprehension and demonstration and co-operation are expected to enhance tremendously in teaching-learning process.
Unfortunately, most of the biology teachers neglect the use of audio-visual aids in teaching the subject probably, due to non-availability of the materials or lack of techniques for using them. Mavida (2012) reiterated that the utilization of instructional materials such as audio-visual learning aids make students to participate effectively in the teaching and learning process, hence ending with quality education that enable them to suit in the current society in relation to technological changes.
Generally, it is agreed that audio-visual learning aids assist in the learning process and students find it easy to grasp the materials in classroom when audio-visual learning aids are used. However, use or non-use of learning aids was not only problem in public secondary schools in Onna Local Government Area; material shortages, motivational inadequacy and poor learning environment were some of the problems.
However, the relationship between usage and non-usage of audio-visual learning aids and the teaching of Biology in schools have had not so far been established, despite other problems. It is against this backdrop that this study is aimed at finding out effect of application of audio-visual aids in the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Onna Local Government Area.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study was to examine the influence of application of audio-visual aids in teaching of Biology in secondary schools. Specifically, the study:
- examine the influence of used and non-used of audio-visual aids in teaching of Biology in secondary schools
- assess the type of audio-visual aids that secondary school teachers in Biology use in teaching of the subject
- examine the influence of accessibility of audio-visual aids in teaching of Biology in secondary schools.
Significance of the Study
This study which is concerned with investigating the impact of the application of audio-visual aids on teaching and learning of biology in secondary schools in Onna Local Government Area is bound to be of immense benefits to students, teachers, school authorities; educational stakeholders, especially, the study will be of immense benefit because it will: enhance the learning processes of the students and thereby improve on their overall academic achievement, since it will increase the motivation of the students, add clarity to the topics taught and make learning more interesting.
Findings from the study will help to sensitize teachers and staff of secondary schools who teach and offering biology of their important roles in promoting the application of audio-visual aids in teaching and learning. This is because it will provide a basis for them to understand the need for their complimentary roles in encouraging and supporting the application of audio-visual aids.
Finding from this study will further help to reveal and create awareness among the school authorities of the importance or otherwise of the use of audio-visual aids in teaching and learning. This is because the findings from this study may require taking a decision be the secondary school authorities whether to refuse audio-visual aids in learning curriculum or to modify expunge or discontinue with the existing teaching methods.
Create awareness for state and federal ministry of education as policy makers in secondary schools of the need to infuse the use of audio-visual aids as a core teaching method in the curricula of secondary schools and impress upon them to provide explicit strategy for enforcing the use of audio-visual materials in teaching and learning.
The study was guided by the following research questions:
- What are the influence of used and non-used of audio-visual aids and the teaching of biology in secondary schools?
- To what extent do the types of audio-visual aids influence the teaching of biology in secondary schools?
- How does the accessibility of audio-visual aids affect the teaching of biology in secondary schools?
The following research hypotheses were postulated to guide the study:
- There is no significant influence on the used and non-used of audio-visual aids and the teaching of biology in secondary schools.
- There is no significant influence on the types of audio-visual aids used in teaching of biology in secondary schools.
- There is no significant influence between accessibility and non-accessibility of audio-visual aids and the teaching of biology in secondary schools.
Delimitation of Study
The study was restricted to selected secondary schools in Onna Local Government Area and it involved only public senior secondary schools two (SS2) students offering Biology as a subject in all the public schools in the study area. The study was delimited to only five public secondary schools in the area.
Limitation of the Study
Due to financial challenges on the part of the researcher, the study could not be extended to all the public secondary schools in the study area. Instead, only five public secondary schools were covered under this study. The study focuses on application of audio-visual aids in teaching of biology in secondary schools in Onna Local Government Area.
Operational Definition of Terms
Audio-visual Aids: is a combination of video and sound materials that help a teacher and students to make learning experience clear and vivid by appealing to both sense of hearing and sighting.
Biology: this is a science of life and of living organism.
Secondary school: this is a school which provides secondary education between the age of 11 and 16 or 11 and 19 after primary school and before higher education.
Visual aid: these are integrated development from Microsoft. It is use to develop computer programs for web services and mobile apps.