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Family Variables as Correlate of Secondary School Students’ Participation in Practical Agricultural Science

Family Variables as Correlate of Secondary School Students’ Participation in Practical Agricultural Science

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

Family occupies an important position in the life of a child. It is the family that a child is born and nurtured until when he becomes an adult to take care of himself/herself. According to William (2011), the first type of training a child receives in life starts with the family. It is through this institution that the cultural, social and moral behaviour as well as proper integration into the society is transmitted.

Everyone starts life in a family, irrespective of the kind of family.  Family as the major unit of socialization is very vital for the development of a child. It is with this unit that the child first identifies himself before the ethnic group, or the society at large.

The family has a great influence on students’ psychological, emotional, social and economic state. In the view of Ajila (2014), the state of the family affects the individuals life. In recent times, families show different attitudes towards the participation of their children in practical agricultural science and both favorable and unfavourable attitudes of the parents have effects on the participation of their children in agricultural science practical session.

Family, variables refers to those qualities of family structure, marital status, parental educational attainment, socio-economic status among others. Family variables have been of great importance in shaping the performance of students in schools worldwide. This is because academic work is usually as a result of motivation that students get from the people they interact with in their initial stages of life.

Rouse (2008) found out that student who came from more disadvantaged families are involved in practical agricultural science more than their counterparts in less disadvantaged families. The relationship between parental resources and students’ participation in practical agricultural science has received a great deal of attention in the economic literature in African countries.

Guo and Harris (2009), observed that in Ghana and South Africa, students’ participation in agricultural science practical was strongly associated with their parents’ educational attainments, marital status and socio-economic status among others. The strong correlation between parental income and students’ participation in Agricultural science is one of the major findings in the literature on the determinant of student’s participation in agricultural science practical (Whiteman, 2009).

Family Variables as Correlate of Secondary School Students’ Participation in Practical Agricultural Science

 Psychologists and sociologist have long been aware of the importance of family in a child’s development. Grcy (2006) defined family as a kinship group linked by blood and marriage and occupying a common household. It is the basis of all human societies; as such it assumes certain common and broadly social, economic and psychological obligations towards its members. Family influence on a child is significant especially when the major part of his life is spent in the home with parent and other members of the family.

A family is a place where children live with parents or guidance and it is the place where they are groomed. It is a place where the children begin to learn the norms and values of the society in which they find themselves. The family is a social unit in any society and it is the source of early stimulation and experience in children (Collins, 2007).

The family influences the child at the earliest possible time of his/her life, a time when his/her, mind is most receptive. It provides the first impression which may last through the whole of the child’s life. The child often sees the parents, siblings and things in their immediate environment to be most significant and they are capable of promoting or diminishing him or her in self worth and academic achievement (Ekanem, 2006).

1.2     Statement of the Problem

The quality of any society depends on the nature of personalities produced by the family through value inculcation. These values keep changing from time to time due to socio-economic status, educational attainment and technological changes.

Nwosu (2006) noted that the complexities of modern society has created confusion in the family system such that even glaringly unacceptable conducts (Cheating unruly behaviour in children etc) are being tolerated or inappropriately handled to stem the web. This is contributing to the fast decay in the nation educational system and the refusal by students to participate in agricultural science practical.

Therefore, it is necessary to examine the perceived family variables in relationship with the participation in agricultural science practical in secondary schools by the students. Barrow (2008) observed that the amount of time one spends with a person is one of the main determinants of how significant that person is in his life and the influence he has on his/her attitude, values and behaviour.

This will have implication for socialization, education and economic living among the different families in Etinan Local Government Area. It is against this background that the study sought to investigate the extent to which family variables such as parental level of education, marital status of the parents and socio-economic status relates to students participation in agricultural science practical in secondary schools by the students. in Etinan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

Family Variables as Correlate of Secondary School Students’ Participation in Practical Agricultural Science

1.3     Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to investigate family variables as correlate of secondary school students’ participation in practical agricultural science in Etinan Local Government Area

Specifically, the study sought to:

(i)  determine the relationships between parental level of education and secondary school students’ participation in practical agricultural science

(ii) examine the relationship between parental marital status and secondary schools students’ participation in practical agricultural science.

(iii) assess the relationship between parental socio-economic status and secondary school students’ participation in practical agricultural science.

1.4     Significance of the Study

This study will be of importance to different individual who include; Parents,  school administrators, teachers and students. It will help the parents to be aware of the importance of family variables in shaping the behaviours of their children towards participation in practical agricultural science at home and in school.

It will be of immense help to the school management as it will enlighten them on the important factors in the students’ family background so as to be able to deal with or pay more attention to those factors which may affect students’ participation in practical agricultural science.

1,5     Research questions

(i)   What is the relationship between parental level of education and secondary school students’ participation in practical agricultural science in Etinan Local Government Area.?

(ii)  What is the relationship between parental marital status and secondary school students’ participation in practical agricultural science in Etinan Local Government Area.?

(iii) What is the relationship between parental socio-economic status  and secondary school students’ participation in practical agricultural science in Etinan Local Government Area.?

   1.6  Research Hypotheses

In order to guide the study, the following research hypotheses were postulated.

(i) There is no significant relationship between parental level of education and secondary school students’ participation in practical agricultural science in Etinan Local Government Area.

(ii) There is no significant relationship between parental marital status and secondary school students’ participation in practical agricultural science in Etinan Local Government Area.

(iii)  There is no significant relationship between parental socio-economic status and secondary school students’ participation in practical agricultural science in Etinan Local Government Area.

1.7     Limitations of the Study

This study was limited to family variables and  secondary school students’ participation in practical agricultural science in Etinan Local Government Area. Logistic problems such as time factor, financial constraint and communication barriers also limited the study.

1.8     Delimitation of the Study

This research work focused on the relationship between family variables and secondary school students’ participation in Agricultural science practical in Etinan local Government Area. Variables of interest were: parental level of education, socio-economic status and marital status of the parents. The study was restricted to a survey of five public secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area.

1.9     Definition of Terms

Agricultural Science: Is the science of cultivating the soil, harvesting crops, and raising livestock for human needs under the management of man.

Family: Is a social unit closely related by blood and consisting of parents, children, uncles, aunts and cousins.

Correlates: Mutual relationship or connection, in which one thing affects or depends on another.

Participation: The act of taking part in something

Parental Marital Status: Students’ parental situation with regard to whether they are single, married, divorced or widowed.

Parental Socio-economic Status: This refers to parental position as an aggregate concept that includes both resources-based and prestige-based measures. It is based on family income, parental occupation, and social status in the community.

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