Effect of the Use of Instructional Materials on Students’ Academic Achievement in the Concept of Respiratory System
Cover Fly leaf
Table of Contents
Lists of tables
List of appendices
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Delimitations of the study
1.8 Limitations of the study
1.9 Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Theoretical Framework
2.1.1 Piaget’s Learning Theory
2.1.2 Jerome Bruner’s Constructivists Theory of Learning
2.2 Conceptual Framework
2.2.1 Instructional Materials
2.2.2 Factors that Affects the Use of Instructional Materials in Biology
2.2.4 Still pictures
2.2.5 Instructional Materials and Students Achievement
2.3 Empirical Framework
2.4 Summary of Literature Review
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Area of Study
3.3 Population of Study
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
3.7 Reliability of the instruments
3.9 Research Procedure
3.10 Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.2 Discussion of Result
4.3 Summary Findings
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.3 Implication of the Study
5.5 Suggestion for further Study
LISTS OF TABLES
Table1: Percentages of what is learnt using Different Senses
Table 2: What is remembered from Learning Activities using Different Senses?
Table 3: Test blueprint for biology achievement test on the concept of respiratory system
Table 4: t-test analysis of academic achievement of students taught respiratory system using models and those taught using still pictures
Table 5: t-test analysis of academic achievement of male and female students taught respiratory system using models
Table 6: t-test analysis of academic achievement of male and female students taught respiratory system using still pictures
LIST OF APPENDICES
APPENDIX A: Lesson Notes for Control Group
APPENDIX B: Lesson Notes for Experimental Group
APPENDIX C: Biology Achievement Test (BAT)
APPENDIX D: Model Answer
APPENDIX E: Reliability of the Biology Achievement Test (BAT)
APPENDIX F: Mean and Standard Deviation Analysis of Academic Achievement of Students Taught Respiratory System Using Models
APPENDIX G: Mean and Standard Deviation Analysis of Academic Achievement of Students Taught Respiratory System Using Still Picture
APPENDIX H: Mean and Standard Deviation Analysis of Academic Achievement of Male Students Taught
Respiratory System Using Models
APPENDIX I: Mean and Standard Deviation Analysis of Academic Achievement of Female Students Taught Respiratory System Using Models
APPENDIX J: Mean and Standard Deviation Analysis of Academic Achievement of Male Students Taught
Respiratory System Using Still Pictures
APPENDIX K: Mean and Standard Deviation Analysis of Academic Achievement of Female Students Taught Respiratory System Using Still Pictures
The study examined effect of the use of instructional materials on students’ academic achievement in the concept of respiratory system. Three research questions and three null hypotheses were stated to guide the study. A quasi-experimental design was used for the study. The population of the study comprised 3135 senior secondary two (SS2) Biology students in fourteen (14) public secondary schools in Itu Local Government Area.
The sample size used for the study was one hundred students (100) drawn from two public secondary schools using simple random sampling technique. Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was the instrument for data collection. The reliability co-efficient of 0.80 was obtained using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Mean, standard deviation and independent t-test statistics were used to analyze the data.
The result showed a significant difference in academic achievement of students taught respiratory system using models and those taught using still pictures. However, that there is no significant difference in academic achievement of male and female students taught respiratory system using models and still pictures in Biology. Based on the findings, it is recommended that Biology teachers should make use of models during lesson delivery for possible enhancement of students’ performance in Biology.
1.1 Background of the Study
Education is the process by which a person or group of persons acquire new knowledge through the interaction with the environment which lead to the development of the society and individuals (Ajelabi, 2000 in Ntuk, 2015). In Nigeria, for instance, it is an instrument “Par Excellence” for improving national growth and development (NPE, 2013).
The realization of the need for a more meaningful and relevant education for development and self reliance is evident in the formulation of the national policy on education as well as the production of innovative curriculum materials for schools (Peter, 2005). Science which is the foundation upon which the bulk of present day technological breakthrough is built becomes a crucial part of the curricular in the national curriculum. Nowadays, nations all over the world including Nigeria are striving hard to develop technologically and scientifically, since the world is turning scientific and all proper functioning of lives depend greatly on science.
Owolabi (2004) defined science as an integral part of human society. Its impact is felt in every sphere of human life, so much that it is intricately linked with a nation’s development. Science as a field of study has done a lot for mankind. For instance, life has been made a lot easier for man as a result of the advancements in science. Through science, man has been able to better understand his environment and this has enabled him to manipulate the conditions of his environment to suit his own benefit. Science has also made it possible for man to acquire his desired needs easily.
It has reduced human needs to the barest minimum. Ogunleye (2000) observed that science is a dynamic human activity concerned with understanding the workings of our world. This understanding helps man to know more about the universe. The science curricula, specifically the biology curriculum for the senior secondary schools were one of such curricula.
Biology is one of the science subjects that is offered at the senior secondary school education system in Nigeria. The term biology is derived from two Greek words “Bios” and “Logos” which means “life” and “study”, respectively. Biology therefore is the study of living things (plants and animals). The knowledge of biology contributes a lot to scientific literacy of any society. It engages the people to understand the world around them and so have the ability to make informed choices about their healthcare, the environment and the society in which they live (Karen, 2008).
It has become the central intellectual discipline especially in the aspect of biotechnology and indispensable in helping individuals to think more clearly about the values involves in the fast changing world. Biology is one of the science subjects and the objectives of Biology education as stated in the senior school biology curriculum are to effect in the students:
- adequate laboratory and field skills in Biology;
- meaningful and relevant knowledge in Biology;
- ability to apply scientific knowledge in everyday life in matters of personal and community health and agriculture; and
- functional and reasonable scientific attitudes (James, Udofia and Edet, 2012).
A closer look at these objectives will show that for a successful attainment of these goals, a lot of instructional materials must be employed in teaching concepts in Biology of which respiratory system is not an exception.
Despite the importance of biology in the society, there have been issues of poor academic achievement of students in biology in both Senior School Certificate Examination (WAEC 2004-2008) and Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB 2004-2008) examinations. The growing incidence of failure in biology rating achievement in both Senior School Certificate Examination (WAEC 2004-2008) and Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB 2004-2008) examination were occasioned by poor state of resources for teaching and learning biology and the environment under which the learning of biology takes place.
Another reason for the poor achievement according to (Locke and McDermid, 2005; and Ruiyony, 2004) is due to the abstraction and processes involved in some topics that are not physically observable. Thus, it is necessary that every teacher should decide on the appropriate instructional strategies in collaboration with good instructional materials so as to acquire any successful teaching and learning process (Udo, Ntuk and Ekanem, 2003).
Instructional materials are essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning of school subjects to promote teachers efficiency and improve students’ achievement. They make learning more interesting, practical, realistic and appealing. They also enable both the teacher and students to participate actively and effectively in lesson sessions.
They give room for acquisition of skills and knowledge and development of self-confidence and self-actualization. Instructional materials are considered important in teaching and learning in all levels of education because textbooks and other resources materials are basic tools. Absence or inadequacy of these materials could make teachers handle subjects in abstract manners, portraying it as dry and non-exciting. For example textbooks, charts, maps, audio-visual and electronic instructional materials such as radio, tape, recorder, television and video tape recorder, helps in making learning more interesting (Atkinson, 2000).
Equally, the importance of instructional materials is also evident in the achievement of students. Schools whose teachers use more instructional resources perform better than schools whose teachers do not use instructional materials. Learning can occur through one’s interaction with one’s environment. Environment here refers to instructional facilities that are available to facilitate students learning outcome.
However, Onasanya and Omosewo (2011) attested that effective teaching and learning requires a teacher to teach the students with instructional materials and use practical activities to make learning more vivid, logical, realistic and pragmatic. Ekpo (2014) agreed that instructional materials are indispensable in teaching and learning activities and that teaching aids are useful in stimulating the sense organs which aid effective learning.
Despite the fact that instructional materials are essential tools in learning and knowledge acquisition they are not readily available in Nigerian secondary schools leading to low level of achievement of learners in government examination Abdu-Raheam (2014). Abdu-Raheam (2014) encouraged teachers to improvise teaching aids because they are in great major to enhance learners’ full participation in the lesson, gives room for inquiring, problem solving discussion and clarification of issues and ideas among students and teacher.
Udogu and Enukora (2017) advocated for teachers resourcefulness and also encouraged them to search for necessary instructional materials through local means to supplement or replace the standard ones. (Oso, 2011) also agreed that the best way for teachers to make use of their manipulative skills is to improvise so as to achieve their lesson objectives, at least, to a reasonable extent. Adeyemi and Olaleye (2010) identified the importance of improvisation of instructional materials as making learning concrete and real, substituting one thing for another, allows the students to participate in the production of materials, economical and more teacher-students resource oriented.
Similarly, a teacher who has adequate and relevant teaching facilities is more confident, effective and productive (Onasanya and Omosewo 2011). Instructional materials are essential since they help the teacher and learners avoid overemphasis on recitation and rote learning that can easily dominate a lesson.
Resource materials allow learners to have practical experiences which help them to develop skills and concepts and to work in a variety of ways (Tuimur and Chemwei, 2015). The work of Tuimur and Chemwei (2015) graphically explain that people learn more through the senses of sight and hearing compared to other senses.
Table1. Percentages of what is learnt using Different Senses
|Senses used when Learning
|% of what is learnt
Source: Tuimur and Chemwei (2015)
Tuimur and Chemwei also notes that we remember more when we see, hear, say and do.
Table 2: What is remembered from Learning Activities using Different Senses
|% of what is remembered
|What we read
|What we hear
|What we see
|What we see and hear
|What we say and do
Source: Tuimur and Chemwei (2015)
The implication here is that for more knowledge to be internalized, more of the learner’s senses have to be stimulated other than hearing alone. In learning and teaching, the various senses can be stimulated through the use of audiovisual materials. The study of biology is facilitated through the use of instructional materials for demonstration or investigation of biological facts and phenomenon.
For instance, model of lungs can be used to explain the structure and parts of a lung as a respiratory medium in mammals than the one who was merely given notes to copy. In teaching respiratory system effectively, there is therefore need to adequately avail and effectively utilize instructional materials. This then formed the background to which this present study assesses the use of instructional materials on students’ academic achievement in the concept of respiratory system in secondary schools in Itu Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Students’ continuous poor achievement in biology in particular is a persisting problem and concern to parents, government, stakeholders and biology teachers. Thus, it has been described over the years there exist the problem of students’ low achievement in public biology examination. It is observed that students fail in biology because they lack skills to respond, to test items.
However, these skills could only be imparted through effective teaching and the use of instructional materials. Hence, the question then arises thus; does the use of instructional materials have any effect on students’ academic achievement in biology in the concept of respiratory system in Itu Local Government Area?
1.3 Objective of the study
The general purpose of this study is to investigate the effect use of instructional materials on students’ academic achievement in the concept of respiratory system in secondary schools in Itu Local Government Area. Specifically the study will:
- compare the academic achievement of students taught respiratory system using models and those taught using still pictures; and
- compare the academic achievement of male and female students taught respiratory system using models; and
- compare the academic achievement of male and female students taught respiratory system using still pictures in secondary schools.
1.4 Research Questions
Based on the above purposes, the following research questions were raised to guide this study:
- What differences exist in academic achievement of students taught respiratory system using models and those taught using still pictures?
- What differences exist in academic achievement of male and female students taught respiratory system using models?
- What differences exist in academic achievement of male and female students taught respiratory system using still pictures?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
In line with the research questions, the following hypotheses are formulated for testing at 0.05 levels of significance.
- There is no significant difference in academic achievement of students taught respiratory system using models and those taught using still pictures.
- There is no significant difference in academic achievement of male and female students taught respiratory system using models.
- There is no significant difference in academic achievement of male and female students taught respiratory system using still pictures.
1.6 Significance of the Study
- The findings of this study shall be beneficial to curriculum planners as it may help them to know the need to review the curriculum in line with the compulsion of the use of instructional materials for the classroom instruction. The idea of teachers doing teaching without the integration of instructional materials would be reduced to the barest minimum and maximize teachers’ effectiveness in the classroom.
- This study would also make students actively involved in the teaching and learning process as their attentions would be more attracted when taught with the instructional materials and as a result improve and develop students cognitive aspects of learning.
- Textbooks writers would find the result of this research beneficial by recommending appropriate teaching aids specifically for content in the course of writing textbooks.
- This study would also assist teachers in the selection of appropriate instructional materials in impacting the area of cognitive, affective and psychomotor domain in order to achieve the desired educational goal.
- To Parents: Parents will be better informed on how to encourage and help their wards to produce indigenous instructional materials. This may be in form of sourcing local materials and providing funds for those that cannot be found in their environment.
- To government: the study will provide them with sound knowledge of organizing seminars to teachers on the indigenous based instructional materials selection and utilization in teaching of Biology.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
This study is delimited to the effect of instructional materials (models and still pictures) on students’ academic achievement on the concept of respiratory system in secondary schools in Itu Local Government Area.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In the course of this research, researcher is expected to face the following challenges; first lack of enough time as the researcher attended his working station while doing research; the second challenge was that some targeted respondents showed oppositions, thus the researcher was patient and try to convince them in order to achieve the purpose of this study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
The relevant terms below were defined relative to their usage in this study:
Instructional Materials: This is any device employed by teachers to transmit facts, facilitate skills/knowledge acquisition and improve on understanding of the students in Biology. They include models, charts, photograph and flash cards as used in this study.
Model: Models is a replica, imitation or copy of the real things or objects with a suitable change in size, complexity, timing, safety and cost factor for carrying out the desired instructional purpose.
Still Pictures: These are pictures created by projecting an image onto a photosensitive surface such as a chemically treated plate or film and receptor.
Academic Achievement: It is the grades achieved by students in an examination or attitude that is being carryout during a particular experiment in Biology.