The Influence of Instructional Materials’ Utilization on the Academic Performance of Students in Biology
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of instructional materials utilization on the academic performance of students in Biology in Etinan Local Government Area.
Four null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Literature that related to the variable of the study were reviewed. The study adopted a quasi-experimental design.
The population of this study was 1,915 SS2 Biology students in the study area. Two hundred (200) Biology students in their intact classes from five randomly selected schools consisted the sample size.
The instrument used for data collection was Biology Achievement Test (BAT), which was administered to the respondent in their respective classrooms after the teaching on the topic that was used for the study digestive system and aquatic habitat.
However, Digestive system made use of instructional wall chart while Aquatic habitat made use of an aquarium as instructional materials. After administering the test, scores generated which formed the data were analyzed using independent t-test statistics.
The result indicated that there was significant difference between the academic performance of Biology students taught with instructional wall chart and those taught without instructional wall chart.
It also revealed that there was a significant differences in the academic performance of biology students taught with aquarium and those taught without aquarium. The study also revealed that there was a gender differences in the academic performance of Biology students taught with the use of instructional wall chart.
Further studies reveal that there was no significant gender differences in the academic performance of Biology students taught using an aquarium.
- Background to the Study
Learning involves the acquisition of new knowledge, ideas, skills, values, and experiences which enable an individual to modify or alter his/her action (NTI Manual, 2016). Learning is a gradual process to learners. It must be done in a way that appeals to students’ varied interest and abilities, moving from known to unknown and encouraging active class participation.
The teacher cannot be said to have achieved his or her instructional objectives until there is a desired change in the behavior of the students. Effective teaching and learning require a teacher to teach the students with instructional materials and use practical activities to make learning more vivid, logical realistic and pragmatic (Akinleye, 2012).
The teacher is therefore expected to use all within his or her reach to make the learner learn by using instructional materials.
Abdu-Raheem (2016) defines instructional materials as essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning of school subjects especially Biology, to promote teacher efficiency and improve students’ academic performance.
In the same vain,This definition is in tandem with Isola (2010) who said that instructional materials are objects or devices that assist teachers to present their lessons logically and sequentially to the learners while Abiodun-Oyebanyi and Adu (2017) added that instructional materials are those things which support, facilitate, influence and encourage acquisition of knowledge, competency, and skills.
However, in assessing these definitions, one can say that instructional materials are those things that a teacher and learners use in the course of teaching and learning to make learning simple, easy to understand, for easy retaining and recalling when need arise.
Instructional materials are devices developed or acquired to assist or facilitate teachers in transmitting an organized knowledge, skills and attitudes (Nwachukwa, 2016). Instructional materials are educational resources used for illustrating content of instruction thereby making learning more concrete and less abstract.
However, Instructional materials are vitals to teaching and learning process because they generate interest which in turn trigger learning and promote technology transfer. Ibe Bassey (1998) opined that when in the classroom the teacher presents a stimulus, he consciously intends to evoke a positive behavior, if he uses an instructional material students will learn more efficiently.
The Influence of Instructional Materials’ Utilization on the Academic Performance of Students in Biology
In educational system there are many instructional materials used in the process of teaching and learning some of which include:
- Visual instructional materials
- Audio instructional materials
- Audio-visual instructional materials
- Printed instructional materials
All these instructional materials have their various function.
- Visual instructional materials: These are those materials that appeal to the sense of sight i.e they are seen with the use of the eye; examples are instructional wall charts, aquarium, concrete materials of all types etc.
- Audio instructional materials: These are materials that make use of the auditory system examples are radio discs, tape recorder etc.
- Audio-visual materials: These are materials that make use of the sense of sight and hearing examples of these materials are projectors, film strip, television motion pictures, computer etc.
- Printed materials: These are printed work for teaching and learning they are magazines, textbooks, flexs, newspapers journals mono graphs etc.
Instructional wall charts are charts that are hung on walls, examples of these wall charts are flip chart pocket charts, flex etc. An aquarium is another instructional material for teaching. It is a container designed to contain water so as to preserve some aquatic organisms to enable the course of teaching and learning of basic aquatic concepts.
Equally, Instructional material does not only provide the necessary concrete experience but also help students integrate prior experience. It is against this background that the study sought to find out how instructional material utilization affect students’ academic performance in Biology among secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area.
- Statement of the Problem
In recent years there are increasing problems of poor academic performance of students in Biology in both external and internal examination regardless of all avenues explored by government to bring out good academic performance in the subject;
by providing relevant text books, laboratory materials and employing qualified science teachers to teach students. This poor academic performance of Biology candidates as evident in WAEC result of 2018/2019 academic session have been attributed to several factors such as gender differences, methods of teaching, insufficiency qualified teachers, inconsistent policies of education, inadequate utilization of instructional materials, etc.
Most importantly, Some researches carried out in other science related courses in the research area disclose that the utilization of instructional wall chart has a significant effect on students’ academic performance.
Regrettably, there has been no research work done with the use of aquarium in the teaching of concepts in aquatic habitat to ascertain how it could affect secondary school students’ academic performance in Etinan Local Government Area.
Therefore this research sought to determine whether the utilization of instructional wall chart and aquarium during the teaching of Biology could improve or mar students’ academic performance in Etinan Local Government Area.
- Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of instructional materials’ utilization on the academic performance of students in Biology in Etinan Local Government Area. Specifically, it sought to:
- determine the effect of the utilization of instructional wall chart on the academic performance of Biology students in Etinan Local Government Area;
- ascertain the effect of gender on the academic performance of students taught with wall charts in Etinan Local Government Area;
- determine the effect of the use of aquarium in the teaching of Biology on students’ academic performance in Etinan Local Government Area;
- examine the effect of gender on the academic performance of students taught with aquarium in Etinan Local Government Area;
- There is no significant difference in the academic performance of Biology students taught with instructional wall chart and those taught without instructional wall chart.
- There is no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female Biology students taught with instructional wall chart.
- There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students taught the concept of Aquatic Habitat using an aquarium and those taught without an aquarium.
- There is no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female Biology students taught the concept of Aquatic Habitat using Aquarium.
- Significance of the Study
Through this study educational planners will see the need to educate teachers on how to utilize instructional materials effectively to enable students learn more. The study would enhance teachers’ teaching effectiveness and productivity.
To the students, the effective use of instructional materials would enable them to effectively learn and retain what they are taught. This is because when teachers solidify their teaching with instructional materials the learners’ knowledge acquired will be reflect in the society positively. This study will also serve as a reference point to other researchers on similar topics.
- Limitation of the Study
This research was limited by a number of factors; some of which were:
- Time: The time given for the study was not enough for wider and in-depth research work.
- Financial Constraint: This prevented the researcher from extending the study to cover a wider geographical area and from using larger sample size.
- Delimitation of the Study
The study was delimitated to instructional wall chart, aquarium and students’ academic performance in Biology, in secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area. Only public senior secondary schools and Biology students in senior secondary school two (SSS2) class in 2019/2020 academic session were used in the study. The concepts of Biology taught were Digestive System and Aquatic Habitat.
- Definition of Terms
- Instructional materials: These are materials that help teachers to deliver their lessons effectively and also help students to understand the lesson the more than what it should be without its usage.
- Utilization: This refers to a teacher’s use of instructional material to deliver lessons to the understanding of the learners to bring about a positive desired academic change in their performance.
- Aquarium: This is a transparent container designed to contain water so as preserve some aquatic organisms to enable the course of teaching and learning of Aquatic Habitat.
- Instructional Wall Chart: This is a chart hung on the wall, with contents reflecting the human Digestive system.