EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE AND ACADEMIC SELF-CONCEPT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
The main purpose of this study aimed to examine educational guidance and academic self-concept of secondary school students in Itu Local Government Area. Research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. This study employed correlation survey design. The population of the study was made up of all the senior secondary schools (SSI-SS3) students in all the public secondary schools in Itu Local Government Area, Estimated to thirteen thousand one hundred and ninety eight (13, 198) male and female students.
The sample for the study consisted of 725 students for the academic session selected from the population which was made up of 354 males and 371 females. Multi-stage sampling procedure was adopted for selection. The instrument used to collect data was Academic Guidance and Academic Self-Concept Questionnaire (AGASCQ) with18 items. Pearson Moment Correlation coefficient was used to analyze the data related to the research questions by finding the relationship between the variables. In testing the null hypotheses, t-test of correlational analysis was used to ascertain the significant relationship between the two variables of interest at 0.05 alpha level.
The findings of the study revealed a weak positive relationship between educational guidance and academic self-concept of secondary school students. More so, the findings of the study indicated that no significant relationship existed between educational guidance and academic self-concept of male students, a significant relationship existed between educational guidance and academic self-concept of female students. It was recommended among others that students should be encouraged in their self-concept through academic guidance and counselling orientation.
1.1 Background to the Study
Educational guidance is a comprehensive process aimed at assisting individuals, typically students, in making informed decisions about their educational and career paths. It encompasses a range of activities and services designed to provide support, information, and guidance to individuals at various stages of their academic journey (Miller, Thompson, and Adams, 2022). The role of educational guidance becomes increasingly crucial in shaping the academic self-concept of secondary school students. Academic self-concept, representing individual beliefs and perceptions about academic abilities, exerts a profound influence on student motivation, engagement, and overall educational outcomes.
Educational guidance programs serve as catalysts in this process, offering indispensable resources, information, and support to empower students in making well-informed decisions about their academic and career trajectories. At the heart of this educational journey lies the pivotal role of educational guidance in shaping not only the academic trajectories but also the very self-concept of secondary school students. Academic self-concept, encapsulating individual beliefs and perceptions about academic abilities, stands as a linchpin in determining student motivation, engagement, and overall educational achievements.
Generally, education serves as a fundamental pillar in the comprehensive development of individuals, exerting substantial influence over intellectual, social, and emotional dimensions (Smith and Brown, 2023). Within the educational landscape, secondary schools assume a pivotal role in molding students for higher education and future pursuits (Jones & Brown, 2021). At the core of academic achievement lies the intricate construct of a student’s self-concept – an amalgamation of beliefs, perceptions, and attitudes towards their academic capabilities and accomplishments (Johnson, 2022).
Self-concept, which is an individual’s perception of self, is an important concept of any child’s development. As children begin to develop a sense of self, interact and gain experience in the world, their self-concept is affected. According to Anyanwu and Alafiatayo (2019) noted that the importance of self- concept within educational settings has been discussed by several scholars and has led to the performance of studies examining the role of self-concept in school performance.
Academic self-concept, intrinsic to one’s self-esteem, extends its sway over students’ motivation, persistence, and overall engagement in their educational endeavors (Robinson & Garcia, 2020). Unraveling the complexities that contribute to the formation and evolution of academic self-concept is imperative for crafting effective educational interventions and guidance initiatives (Williams, 2019).
Educational guidance, a multifaceted domain, encompasses purposeful activities designed to assist students in making informed decisions about their academic and career trajectories (Miller, Thompson and Adams, 2022). Beyond the dissemination of crucial information, effective educational guidance nurtures the development of skills, attitudes, and self-awareness essential for making judicious academic choices (Brown & Davis, 2021).
The secondary school phase emerges as a pivotal juncture in the academic odyssey, marked by heightened responsibilities, intricate social dynamics, and exposure to diverse learning experiences (Thomas & Clark, 2023). During this juncture, students navigate a complex interplay of influential factors shaping their academic self-concept, including dynamics within teacher-student relationships, peer interactions, familial influences, and societal expectations (Gomez & Martinez, 2020).
Despite the acknowledged significance of academic self-concept and educational guidance, a nuanced exploration of their interrelations, particularly within the secondary education context, is wanting. This study endeavors to bridge this gap by scrutinizing the relationship between educational guidance programs and the academic self-concept of secondary school students (Adams & White, 2021).
Through this inquiry, the research aspires to furnish nuanced insights that can inform educational policies, counseling methodologies, and curriculum enhancements (Johnson, Smith and Brown 2023). A more profound comprehension of the dynamics between educational guidance and academic self-concept holds the promise of refining the overall educational experience for secondary school students, fostering an environment conducive to their comprehensive development (Smith & Brown, 2022).
In essence, this study underscores the pivotal role of academic self-concept and educational guidance in the secondary school milieu. Through a meticulous exploration of these elements, the research endeavors to elucidate the intricate mechanisms influencing students’ perceptions of their academic prowess, thereby contributing to the discourse on effective educational practices and the holistic well-being of students (Jones, 2020). Therefore, based on this background, the study aimed to examine educational guidance and academic self-concept of secondary school students in Itu Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Within the context of secondary education in Nigeria, the development of students’ academic self-concept is intricately tied to their educational journey. Despite recognizing the critical importance of academic self-concept, there is a noticeable gap in understanding how various elements within the Nigerian secondary school environment such as teacher-student dynamics, peer relationships, and societal expectations collectively contribute to the construction and evolution of students’ perceptions regarding their academic competencies.
Additionally, the effectiveness of educational guidance programs in the Nigerian secondary school system in influencing academic self-concept remains an area that requires thorough exploration. The lack of a comprehensive understanding of these dynamics presents a substantial challenge in formulating targeted interventions to enhance students’ academic self-concept, addressing the unique challenges and realities faced by students in the Nigerian educational landscape.
Furthermore, the role of educational guidance programs in Nigerian secondary schools demands careful examination. While the significance of informed decision-making regarding academic and career paths is universally acknowledged, the specific ways in which guidance programs impact students’ academic self-concept in the Nigerian context are not well-delineated.
A thorough investigation into how educational guidance programs navigate the intricate interplay of factors influencing students’ self-concept in Nigeria is crucial for refining these programs and ensuring their effectiveness in contributing to the holistic development of secondary school students in the Nigerian educational system. Therefore, this study aimed to address educational guidance and academic self-concept of secondary school students in Itu Local Government Area.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study aimed to examine educational guidance and academic self-concept of secondary school students in Itu Local Government Area. Specifically, the study examined:
- the nature of relationship between educational guidance and academic self-concept of secondary school students in Itu Local Government Area.
- the nature of relationship between educational guidance and academic self-concept of male students in Itu Local Government Area.
- the nature of relationship between educational guidance and academic self-concept of female students in Itu Local Government Area.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study:
- What is the nature of relationship between educational guidance and academic self-concept of secondary school students?
- What is the nature of relationship between educational guidance and academic self-concept of male students?
- What is the nature of relationship between educational guidance and academic self-concept of female students?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance:
- There is no significant relationship between educational guidance and academic self-concept of secondary school students.
- There is no significant relationship between educational guidance and academic self-concept of male students.
- There is no significant relationship between educational guidance and academic self-concept of female students.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will be of importance in the following ways:-
- The findings of this study will be beneficial to students, especially those who have low academic self-concept. The students will likely benefit from the counselling and therapeutic application of the techniques.
- The study will refines counseling practices, helping educators tailor guidance programs to meet students’ specific needs in shaping a positive academic self-concept.
- The study will informs education policies by revealing the connection between guidance and academic self-concept, enhancing strategies for secondary school students.
- The study will help in understanding guidance’s impact on academic self-concept empowers students to make informed decisions about their education and career paths.
- The findings contribute to holistic student development, guiding educators to adopt strategies fostering not just academic success but also emotional, social, and personal growth.
- The study will inform educators about cultural influences on academic self-concept, enabling the development of culturally sensitive guidance programs.
- The study will improve the effectiveness of guidance programs, guiding educators to refine interventions that align with diverse student needs, enhancing their educational journeys.
- The study will serve as a reference point or material for other researchers who may like to carry out research on the similar topic.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
Some of the challenges encountered while conducting the research include lack of sufficient funds and short duration assigned for the study.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
For the purpose of effective research work, this study is delimited in scope to all the senior secondary school II (SS II) students in Itu Local Government Area. The study focused on educational guidance and academic self-concept of secondary school students in the study area.
1.9 Operation Definitions of Terms
The following concepts are defined as they are applied in the study:
Educational guidance: Educational guidance refers to the process of providing support, advice, and resources to individuals in their pursuit of education and career development. It encompasses a wide range of services aimed at helping students and professionals make informed decisions about their educational and career paths.
Self-concept: Self-concept refers to the collection of beliefs and perceptions that an individual holds about themselves.
Academic self-concept: Academic self-concept refers to an individual’s perception and evaluation of their academic abilities, skills, and potential. It encompasses a person’s beliefs about their competence in various academic domains, such as mathematics, language arts, science, and social studies.
Students: Secondary school students are typically defined as individuals who are enrolled in educational institutions that provide education for students in the age range of approximately 11 to 18 years old, depending on the educational system and country.