The Effect of Teacher’s and Students’ Led Demonstration Method of Teaching and Students ‘Achievement in Physics in Secondary Schools
The objective of the study was to determine the effect of teacher’s and students’ led demonstration method of teaching on students ‘achievement in Physics in secondary schools in Eket Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Three research questions and three hypotheses were used for the study. The theoretical framework for the study was social constructivist theory by David Ausubel and Jerome Bruner’s learning theory. Literature related to the study was reviewed by the researcher. This study employed the use of quasi-experimental pretest posttest control group design. The population of the study was one thousand and sixteen (1,016) senior secondary two (SS2) students who registered for English in 2021/20222 academic session from the seven public schools in Eket Local Government Area.
The researcher made instruments were Lesson Guide on Specific Heat Capacity and Physics Achievement Test (PAT) designed by the researcher for the students and was validated by an expert in Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Akwa Ibom State University. The reliability of the study was determined using Cronbach Alpha reliability estimate. A sample size of 156 Physics students was obtained from two schools randomly selected from seven public secondary schools in the study area. The data generated from the duly completed and retrieved instruments were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA and tested for significance at 0.05 level of significance. The findings were:
- there is a significant difference in academic achievement of students taught Physics using teacher’s led demonstration and those taught using students’ led demonstration methods (p-cal. = .002; @ p <.05).
- there is no significant difference in difference in academic achievement of male and female students taught Physics using teacher’s and students’ led demonstration method. (p-cal. = .228; @ p < 0.05).
- there is no significant difference in difference in academic achievement of students in Physics when taught using teacher’s and students’ led demonstration method of teaching in urban and rural schools. (p-cal. = .228; @ p < .05).
This chapter presents the background to the study, statement of problem, purpose of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, delimitations and limitations of the study and definition of terms.
1.1 Background to the study
Physics is the branch of science concerned with the nature and properties of matter and energy. The subject matter of physics includes mechanics, heat, light and other radiation, sound, electricity, magnetism, and the structure of atoms. Godfrey-Smith, (2013) defines physics as a major science subject dealing with the fundamental constituents of the universe, the forces they exert on one another, and the results produced by these forces.
however, Sometimes in modern physics a more sophisticated approach is taken that incorporates elements of the three areas listed above; it relates to the laws of symmetry and conservation, such as those pertaining to energy, momentum, charge, and parity. Holzner (2016) defined physics as a natural science which is involved in the study of matter and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the study of nature in an attempt to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is the branch of science that deals with the structure of matter and the interactions between the fundamental constituents of the observable universe.
similarly, in a broadest sense, Kerr, (2019) posited that physics is from the Greek word, physikos, (meaning the knowledge of nature) is concerned with all aspects of nature on both the macroscopic and submicroscopic levels. Its scope of study covers not only the behaviour of objects under the action of given forces but also the nature and origin of gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear force fields. Its ultimate objective is the formulation of a few comprehensive principles that bring together and explain all such disparate phenomena.
Krupp, (2016) is of the view that physics is the basic physical science. Until rather recent times physics and natural philosophy were used interchangeably for the science whose aim is the discovery and formulation of the fundamental laws of nature. As the modern sciences developed and became increasingly specialised, physics came to denote that part of physical science not included in astronomy, chemistry, geology, and engineering. Physics plays an important role in all the natural sciences, however, and all such fields have branches in which physical laws and measurements receive special emphasis, bearing such names as astrophysics, geophysics, biophysics, and even psycho-physics.
Physics can at last, be defined as the science of matter, motion, and energy. Its laws are typically expressed with economy and precision in the language of science. Both experiment, the observation of phenomena under conditions that are controlled as precisely as possible, and theory, the formulation of a unified conceptual framework, play essential and complementary roles in the advancement of physics. Physical experiments result in measurements, which are compared with the outcome predicted by theory. A theory that reliably predicts the results of experiments to which it is applicable is said to embody a law of physics. However, a law is always subject to modification, replacement, or restriction to a more limited domain, if a later experiment deems it necessary.
The Effect of Teacher’s and Students’ Led Demonstration Method of Teaching and Students ‘Achievement in Physics in Secondary Schools
The ultimate aim of physics is to find a unified set of laws governing matter, motion, and energy at small (microscopic) subatomic distances, at the human (macroscopic) scale of everyday life, and out to the largest distances (e.g., those on the extra-galactic scale). This ambitious goal has been realised to a notable extent. Although a completely unified theory of physical phenomena has not yet been achieved (and possibly never will be), a remarkably small set of fundamental physical laws appears able to account for all known phenomena.
The body of physics developed up to about the turn of the 20th century, known as classical physics, can largely account for the motions of macroscopic objects that move slowly with respect to the speed of light and for such phenomena as heat, sound, electricity, magnetism, and light. The modern developments of relativity and quantum mechanics modify these laws insofar as they apply to higher speeds, very massive objects, and to the tiny elementary constituents of matter, such as electrons, protons, and neutrons (Cho, 2012).
Accordingly, Cho (2012) posits that mechanics concentrates not on motion as such but on the change in the state of motion of an object that results from the net force acting upon it. Newton’s second law equates the net force on an object to the rate of change of its momentum, the latter being the product of the mass of a body and its velocity. Newton’s third law, states that when two particles interact, the forces each exerts on the other are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.
Taken together, these mechanical laws in principle permit the determination of the future motions of a set of particles, providing their state of motion is known at some instant, as well as the forces that act between them and upon them from the outside. From this deterministic character of the laws of classical mechanics, profound (and probably incorrect) philosophical conclusions have been drawn in the past and even applied to human history.
Another branch of Physics is nuclear physics according to Cho, (2012).This branch of physics deals with the structure of the atomic nucleus and the radiation from unstable nuclei. About 10,000 times smaller than the atom, the constituent particles of the nucleus, protons and neutrons, attract one another so strongly by the nuclear forces that nuclear energies are approximately 1,000,000 times larger than typical atomic energies. Quantum theory is needed for understanding nuclear structure. Like excited atoms, unstable radioactive nuclei (either naturally occurring or artificially produced) can emit electromagnetic radiation.
The energetic nuclear photons are called gamma rays. Radioactive nuclei also emit other particles: negative and positive electrons (beta rays), accompanied by neutrinos, and helium nuclei (alpha rays). Another aspect of physics is thermal physics which deals with the heat energy Heat is a form of energy that is transferred from one point to another due to difference in temperature between the two points. Heat energy always flow from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature.
Heat energy can also be defined as a measure of the average internal energy of the particles of a substance. Heat energy always flows from the hot object to the cold object. Heat energy is also known as thermal energy. It is measured in Joules (J). This concept cannot be taught effectively without the utilization of effective instructional strategy. This study therefore is poised on examining the effective instructional strategy to adopt in teaching the concept.
According to Fred (2019), the study of physics is relevant to the society as it provides a basis for understanding the dynamic interactions between the atmosphere and the oceans and for the study of short-term weather and long-term climate change. This understanding is essential to stewardship of the environment: for addressing problems like urban air pollution and lake acidification and for dealing with natural hazards such as floods and hurricanes. Also, the society’s reliance on technology represents the importance of physics in daily life. Many aspects of modern society would not have been possible without the important scientific discoveries made in the past.
These discoveries became the foundation on which current technologies were developed. Discoveries such as magnetism, electricity, conductors and others made modern conveniences, such as television, computers, phones and other business and home technologies possible. Modern means of transportation, such as aircraft and telecommunications, have drawn people across the world closer together all relying on concepts in physics. Physics seeks to find alternative solutions to the energy crisis experienced by both first world and developing nations.
As physics help the fields of engineering, bio-chemistry and computer science, professionals and scientists develop new ways of harnessing preexisting energy sources and utilizing new ones (Fred, 2019). The importance of physics to the society necessitates the present study in order to examine the level of teaching of the subjects in teachers’ training institutions. As a result of numerous importance of physics, it occupy a prime place in the senior secondary school curriculum.
The school is a privileged place to broaden the view of what physics are significance to the society. The classroom is an environment for construction of knowledge; teachers and students engage in the development of skills and competencies that are important for the education of students and citizens. Considering the social historical psychology of learning which opined that learning is based on the development of mental structures that allow the student to use the “way of thinking” acquired in the classroom in another learning situation at school and/or in daily life (Roblyer and Doering, 2015).
As such, the students must actively participate in classes. However, this is not what that is observe in the real life is not as practiced. It is necessary that students studying physics should understand the subject so that they can apply their knowledge to their everyday interaction with people and their ever-changing environment as this will also enhance active participation in class (Ifeyinwa and Nweze, 2014). It is imperative that secondary school students should be well-grounded in physics for Nigeria to attain the state of national development it desires and to rank favourably among the developed nations.
However, many factors have hindered the successive implementation of the core curriculum in Physics. These factors according to Chukwuneke and Chikwenze (2016) include teachers’ method of teaching, learning environment, student’s view of the subject, availability of instructional materials, among others these hindrances had led to the poor academic achievement of students in school examinations. Research has revealed that the measurements of students’ previous educational outcomes are the most important indication of students’ future achievement. It is generally assumed that the students who showed better or higher achievement in the starting class of their studies also performed better in future academic years (Alu, Shoukat, Zubair, Haider, FahadMunir, Hamid-Khan, Awais and Ahmed, 2018).
However, Olatunbosun (2018) examined the location of the school influence students’ academic performance in Physics. School location refers to a particular place in relation to other areas in the physical environment (rural and urban) where the school is sited (Olatunbosun 2018). In Nigeria, rural life is uniform, homogenous and less complex than that of urban centers, with cultural diversity which often is suspected to affect students’ academic achievement. This is because urban centers are better favoured with respect to distribution of social amenities such as pipe born water, electricity, health care facilities while the rural areas are less favoured.
This is also true in the distribution of educational facilities and teachers. These prevailing conditions imply that learning opportunities in Nigerian schools differ from school to school. It would appears therefore that students in urban schools have more educational opportunities than their counterparts in the rural schools. While some studies have shown positive location on the students’ learning outcome or achievement Nwogu (2016) found that location was significant in learning physics with rural students exhibiting more learning difficulties than their urban counterparts do. This present study is therefore poised to investigate whether school location will still influence the academic performance of students when taught using teacher’s led demonstration and students’ led demonstration in secondary schools in
Moreover, many of our standard methods of teaching have been shown to be comparatively unproductive in the students’ ability to master and then retain vital concepts. The traditional methods of teaching (lecture, recitation, and laboratory) do not tend to foster collaborative problem-solving, critical thinking and creative thinking (Wood and Gentile 2016; Costa 2018). With regard to the prevailing scenario in science education, in general, students are taught memorization and routine application, and not reasoning methods, analysis, synthesis and evaluation (Somalingam and Shanthakumari 2016).
Employers complain that today’s secondary school graduates are severely lacking in basic skills particularly communication, problem-solving, the ability to prioritize tasks and decision making (Selingo, 2015). A high dropout rate is a current problem in the science classes. The institutions have to raise the student success ratio and have to reduce the numbers of dropouts (Paura and Arhipova 2019; Marcus 2016). In class demonstrations by teachers and students, a standard constituent of science subject in secondary schools are generally expected to facilitate students’ understand science and to stimulate students’ interest (Crouch, 2019). Most students get a great deal more out of visual information than verbal information (spoken and written words and mathematical formulas) (Felder, 2020).
Teacher demonstrations provide a multi-sensory means to describe a concept, idea, or product that may otherwise be difficult to grasp by verbal description alone (Cabibihan, 2017). Teacher demonstrations strategy has emerged to become an instructional approach that is gaining rising interest within the science education (Hadim and Esche 2016). Research has found that diverse students benefit vastly when they have the opportunity to participate in activities, interact with materials and manipulate objects and equipment (Carrier, 2015 and Hadgraft, 2019).
An earlier work that made use of demonstrations by teachers in Physics reported an increase in students’ attendance from thirty percent to eighty percent (Kresta 2019). Ogwo and Oranu (2016) was of the view that teachers’ and students’ led demonstration strategy is the most widely used teaching strategy for acquisition of practical skills as it includes the verbal and practical illustration of a given procedure. The authors have further added that the strategy is highly effective because it contains active of the students. Cabibihan (2015) used working models for in-class demonstrations and reported that a multi-background, multidisciplinary, and multinational student audience had responded favorably to the in-class demonstrations.
It was also reported that the students’ academic achievement could be attributed to the immediate appreciation of concepts from the practical examples that the students experienced from the demonstrations. Jaksa (2019) has utilized a number of demonstration models in his teaching in physics. In conclusion, the author reiterates the effectiveness of demonstration models as a tool to improve learning and to engage students. Adekoya and Olatoye (2018) and Daluba (2015) have studied the effect of demonstration strategy using working models in an aspect of Physics and reported that this teaching strategy brought about the most significant positive impact on the students’ academic achievement in secondary schools in Eket Local Government Area.
Also, to arrest students’ attention, interest, curiosity and promote their achievement, the use of activity stimulating and student-centered approach like students’ led demonstration method instead of depending on the conventional approach need to be embraced. Demonstration method refers to the type of teaching method in which the teacher is the principal actor while the students watch with the intention to act later. Here the teacher does whatever the students are expected to do at the end of the lesson by showing them how to do it and explaining the step-by-step process to them (Ameh, Daniel and Akus, 2017).
Mundi (2016) described it as a display or exhibitions usually done by the teacher while the students watch with keen interest. The author further added that, it involves showing how something works or the steps involved in the process. Some of the advantages of this method as outlined by Olaitan (2014) and Mundi (2012) include: It saves time and facilitate material economy; the method is an attention inducer and a powerful motivator in lesson delivery; students receive feedback immediately through their own products; it gives a real-life situation of course of study as students acquire skills in real-life situations using tools and materials; it help to motivate students when carried out by skilled teachers and it is good in showing the appropriate ways of doing things.
Teacher’s led demonstration strategy is a method of teaching concepts, principles of real things by combining explanation with handling or manipulation of real things, materials or equipment (Akinbobola and Ikitde, 2016). “In the matter of physics, the first lessons should contain nothing but what is experimental and interesting to see. A pretty experiment is in it often more valuable than twenty formulae extracted from our minds” a famous quote by Albert Einstein (Moszkowski, 2018). The novelty, spectacle and inherent drama of an in-class demonstration can provoke significant interest from students.
Psychologists termed this kind of interest, situational interest which spontaneously creates interest among all students (Schraw, 2015). The teachers’ led demonstration strategy is effective for long-term memory retention and appropriate to students’ study skills (McCabe 2015). The act of demonstrating by teachers readily helps to kindle more natural interactions between the students and the teacher. Their active responses and completely spontaneous observations provide an excellent opportunity for the teacher to connect with them and with their unedited ideas.
Conventionally, lecture method is a common strategy teachers employ in the teaching of Physics. It is also referred to as talk and chalk or textbook method (Gbamaja, 1991). In the course of employing the method, the teacher dominates the teaching with very little participation on the part of the students. Here the teacher is seen as the repository of all knowledge while the students are passive recipients of knowledge transmitted by the teachers in the process of learning.
The method has the advantage of covering a wider area within a short time but it is not student centered and students do not gain mastery of concepts. Having critically examined these two methods of teaching, the question now is what is the effect of teacher’s and students’ led demonstration method of teaching on students ‘achievement in Physics in secondary schools in Eket Local Government Area?
1.2 Statement of the problem
Education sector in Nigeria has series of challenges. The important area of Physics challenge is inability to select appropriate instructional strategy by teachers in schools. Improving quality in education requires adequate competent teachers, appropriate facilities, materials and methods which are lacking; these form part of the problems in the study. Thus, one the major challenge of the educational system is the teachers’ knowledge of selecting appropriate instructional strategy for teaching Physicsat all levels, which also affect the quality delivery of educational institutions, teacher’s training and production.
The inability to select appropriate instructional method in Senior secondary schools is a problem to students learning, they do not learn at the same space. This study therefore, is geared towards finding out if the use of teacher’s demonstration could bring a solution to the problem of poor students’ achievement in Basic science. Hence, this study is to determine the effect of teacher’s and students’ led demonstration method of teaching on students ‘achievement in Physics in secondary schools in Eket Local Government Area.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of teacher’s and students’ led demonstration method of teaching on students ‘achievement in Physics in secondary schools in Eket Local Government Area. Specifically, the study sought to:
- Compare the academic achievement of students taught Physics using teachers’ led demonstration and students’ led demonstration method of teaching.
- Determine the academic achievement of male and female students in Physics when taught using teacher’s and students’ led demonstration method.
- Determine the academic achievement of students in Physics when taught using teacher’s and students’ led demonstration method of teaching in urban and rural schools.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study in line with the study:
- What is the difference in academic achievement of students taught Physics using teacher’s led demonstration and those taught using students’ led demonstration methods?
- What is the difference in academic achievement of male and female students taught Physics using teacher’s and students’ led demonstration method?
- What is the difference in academic achievement of students in Physics when taught using teacher’s and students’ led demonstration method of teaching in urban and rural schools?
The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study in line with the study:
- There is no significant difference in academic achievement of students taught Physics using teacher’s led demonstration and those taught using students’ led demonstration methods.
- There is no significant difference in difference in academic achievement of male and female students taught Physics using teacher’s and students’ led demonstration method.
- There is no significant difference in difference in academic achievement of students in Physics when taught using teacher’s and students’ led demonstration method of teaching in urban and rural schools.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be useful to curriculum planners, teachers, students and parents in the following ways:
To Curriculum planners: The findings of the study will help them to know the need for including in the curricular for Nigerian Science teachers of tomorrow what type of method to include for instruction.
To teachers: it will enhance innovative thinking, creativity and resource fullness among Physics teachers as they will have to think of selecting relevant instructional technique for their lesson.
To students: the findings of this study will equip them with the knowledge of the effect of participating during lesson presentation by the teachers in class.
To Parents: the finding of the study will assist them to know the need of assisting in providing materials through Parents Teaches Association for teachers to use in demonstrating concepts in Basic science.
To government: the study will provide them with sound knowledge of organizing seminars to teachers on the instructional methods selection and utilization in teaching of Basic Science.
The findings of this study, if discussed in workshops and seminars will guide the choice of improvised instructional methods used in the teaching/learning process in Physicsand other subject areas.
Future researchers will use the outcome of the research as reference materials on related topics.
1.7 Delimitations of the study
The study is delimited to teachers’ and students’ led demonstration and academic achievement of students in Physics in secondary schools in Eket Local Government Area. The study concentrated on selected public secondary schools in Eket Local Government Area. The topic of focus was on heat energy. The study is also delimited to academic achievement of male and female students taught using teacher’s and students’ led demonstration method of teaching in Senior secondary two classes in the 2021/2022 academic session in Eket Local Government Area. The study is also delimited to school location (urban and rural) public secondary schools in Eket Local Government Area.
1.8 Limitations of the study
This study is expected to face several challenges such as lack of finance, inadequate time and lack of readiness of the respondents to comply with the researcher during administration as well as poor road network to the selected schools. However, the limitations were summoned by the researcher so as to arrive at the conclusion of the study as the sample size of the study was reduced and the Head of Science Teachers were involved as research assistants for easy response by the Physics teachers.
1.9 Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined as used in this study:
Teacher’s Led demonstration: This is an act of displaying and showing how something works and parts thereof by the teacher.
Student’s Led demonstration: This is an act of displaying and showing how something works and parts thereof by the students.
Academic Achievement: This is the scores achieved by students in a Physics Achievement Test.
School Location: This is the community in which the school is located which is rural and urban area
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter reflects various works of other significant researchers which are related to the main objectives of this present study. The review is done under the following subheadings:
and summary of literature review.