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The study examined concord errors in written English of Junior Secondary School Students in Eket Local Government Area. The study used survey research design. Sample population was one hundred students of junior secondary schools in Eket Local Government which was randomly selected. Three research questions were formulated. Ten objectives questions were set on different area of concord.

Simple percentage computation was used in analyzing the collected data. Consequently, findings observed that the students are unable to construct sentences and dictate the concord error that is caused by shift in the construction of elements of sentences. The study also observed that the causes of concord errors were more intralingua them interlingual. The study therefore recommended that teachers should ensure in intensive language teaching right from the lower level so as to instill in the students with correct use of subject verb agreement.          




1.1   Background to the Study

English language in Nigeria serves as the official language, second language as well as the medium of instruction and communication in education institutions. The desire to improve the use of spoken and written English in Junior Secondary school Two (JSS2) students in Eket metropolis is the motivation behind this research.

In the study, the researcher look at the effect of concord errors in the continuous writing of Junior Secondary School students and it is observed that many students are either confused or ignorant of the use of concord. A number of concord errors are made by students when writing essays. Most students construct sentences that lack agreement between subject and verb, pronoun antecedent, complementation in tenses. And the poor performance of students in English Language is attributed to the poor knowledge of the basic grammar.

The knowledge of the rules of concord in English grammar is very necessary if one is to speak and write good English. The study of this aspect of grammar doest not only highlight subject verb relationship, but equally brings to the fire the acceptable relation of some element in a sentence.

The assumption, therefore, is that students at Junior Secondary School level should be conversant with the agreement of sentence element, having been exposed to the rule of concord enough. So, there is a need to streamline and study the specific errors patterns for more effective teaching and learning. And it is obvious, that teaching of grammatical structure happen to be the most fundamental aspect of language study and especially that of English. That is why, it is important to examine all aspect of concord errors in English.


1.2   Statement of the Study

This study, attempts to explore the problematic area of concord errors in written English; most second language users, including students have often been found waiting when it comes to case of observing concord rules in English. This is as a result of the fact that there are always dear distinctions between linguistic features of the learner’s mother tongue (Li) and those of English language. (L2).

The wrong application of concord in students essay is a common feature in the spoken and written English in Junior Secondary School in Eket Local Government Area. Concord errors affect the students overall ability to communicate and thereby, militate on their performance in public examination. There is this general contention that the student’s failure to correctly use concord is due to insufficient knowledge of its functions. Various studies on concord have been largely at the tertiary level, but not much work has been done on its usage in the expressions of Junior Secondary School students in Eket. This implies that the junior student’s knowledge of this grammatical category is limited or it is not properly handled at this level.

Therefore, wrong use of concord leads to lack of fluency in the expression in essays and causes distortion and wrong interpretation of message in any written and spoken discourse.

1.3   Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to assess the level to which concord errors affect the learners of English language and how these influence could be overcome for effective learning f English Language among Junior Secondary Schools in Eket, Akwa Ibom State.

The study seeks to:

  1. Find out the concord errors that interfere in the study of English language.
  2. Find out the concord errors that the teaching of English language
  3. Examine the extent to which insuffient and unqualified teachers in English language.

1.4   Significance of the Study

This research is significant because it will help the students on how to use the laid down rules and approaches to the learning of English language and how concord interference affects in the learning of written English in junior secondary school in Eket Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State.

The research also intends to serve as an invaluable aid to students of English who have not yet assimilated the rules of concord in English language. It is poised to rendering a guide to any other person who is learning and using English as a second language. The care taken in treating the rules and how these apply in spoken and written English would serve as a motivation to these sets of persons hence the errors often noticed in the usage of English language will state.

1.5   Scope and Limitation of the Study

This work covers only concord errors and not other forms of grammatical errors; punctuation spellings, e.c.t in the essays of students. This research is focused on grammatical concord errors in essays of students. The research therefore, includes investigating, identifying, projecting, explaining and describing the concord errors.


1.6   Research Questions

        To guide this research, the following questions were used.

  1. Does concord errors affect the students’ teaching and learning ability?
  2. Can students’ identity and show the concord errors in written English?
  3. What are the problems that are encountered during the teaching and learning concord errors in written English?
  4. What are the importances attached to the teaching of grammar?

1.7   Definition of Term

Learning: A change in behaviour, which is more or less permanent in nature which results from activity training and observation.

Interface: To get involved in and influence apposed or hinder

Concord: Agreement between words in number, person gender, tense, and voice.

Linguistic Features: The signs symbols and behaviour of a particular language.

Syntax: Combination of words in sentence.



This chapter deals with the description of previous studies on the major aspect of the research on concord errors in written English.

        However, the literature examines the following sub-headings;

2.1    The concept of concord in written English

2.2    Types of concord

2.2.1 The verb to be

2.2.2 Agreement in terms of number singular/Plural

2.2.3 Concord relating to the nature of certain nouns

2.2.4 Pronoun and Antecedent Agreement

2.2.5 Concord involving the principle of proximity

2.3    The rules of concord and the second languages learners

2.4    Parallelism

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