Instructional Methods and Pre-Primary School Pupils’ Academic Performance in Basic Science
This research centred on “Instructional methods and pre-primary school pupils’ academic performance in Basic Science in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area”. Two research questions and two research hypotheses were formulated for the study. A quasi-experimental design was employed in carrying out the study.
Four thousand six hundred (4,600) pre-primary two school pupils formed the population of the study. A simple random sampling technique was used in the selection of two (2) primary schools and one hundred (100) pre-primary school pupils used in the study.
Basic Science Achievement Test (BSAT) was used to gather data for the study. The data generated from the instrument was analyzed using independent t-test statistics. The results showed that there is a significant difference in the academic performance of pre-primary school pupils when demonstration and lecture instructional methods are used in the teaching of Basic Science.
It also revealed that there is a significant different between male and female pre-primary school pupils taught Basic Science with demonstration method in favour of the males.
It was therefore recommended among all that teachers should use demonstration method in teaching sciences in order to achieve better academic performance in learning, and a pre-primary school teachers should motivate their female pupils to take active part in every demonstration activity that take place in class.
1.1 Background to the Study
The primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring about a fundamental change in the learner (Tebabal and Kahassay, 2011). To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers should apply appropriate instructional methods of teaching that best suit specific objectives and level exit outcomes.
In the traditional epoch many teaching practitioners widely applied teacher centred methods to impact knowledge to learners comparative to pupil-centred methods. Until today, questions about the effectiveness of instructional methods on pupils’ learning have consistently raised considerable interest in the thematic field of educational research.
However, research on teaching and learning constantly endeavour to examine the extent to which different instructional methods of teaching enhance growth in pre-primary school pupils.
Quite remarkably, regular poor academic performance by the majority of pupils in fundamentally linked to application of ineffective instructional methods by teachers to impact knowledge to learners. Substantial research on the effectiveness of instructional methods of teaching indicates that the quality of teaching or instruction is often reflected by the achievement of learners.
Instructional Methods and Pre-Primary School Pupils’ Academic Performance in Basic Science
According to Ayeni (2011), teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve specific outcomes in order for the method used for instruction or teaching to be effective; teachers need to be conversant with numerous instructional or teaching strategies that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concepts to be covered.
More so, instructional procedures must include appropriate methods and techniques. Often, teachers have misconceived the difference between methods and techniques. According to Aina (2008), a method is a way of doing something, it is an approach or a stand, which a teacher (instructor) adopts to explain a subject matter to a group of pupils or a pupil. On the one hand, methodology is the study and practice of various methods of teaching.
The Nigeria Certificate in Education /Distance learning system course book defines instructional method (teaching method) as a process of selecting, directing, controlling and evaluating the experiences of the child to achieve desirable outcomes. A teaching method may be also regarded as broad and consistent manner of teaching that is guided by certain basic beliefs. The strategies can be sued individually or collectively to achieve educational objectives.
According to Akinleye (2006), instructional methods have been grouped in many ways. All early instructional methods (teaching methods) are classified as traditional methods. The grouping are, traditional teaching methods such as the lecture, direct or other telling methods, heuristic teaching method, creativity teaching methods such as peer group tutoring methods, play-way method etc.
Furthermore, teaching method comprises the principles and methods used for instruction to be implemented by teaches to achieve the desire of learning or memorization by pupils. these strategies are determined partly on subject matter to be taught and partly by the nature of the learner.
For a particular teaching method to be appropriate and efficient it has to be in relation with the characteristic of the learner and the type of learning it is supposed to bring about. Davis (2007) suggested that the design and selection of instructional methods must take into account not only the nature of the subject matter but also show pupils learning.
In today’s school, the trend is that it encourages a lot of creativity. It is a known fact that human advancement comes through reasoning and this form the background of the study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Pupils’ academic performance in Basic Science in various primary schools (urban and rural) at both the federal, state and the local levels is on the decline. This is obvious as glances through examination results reveal that the academic performances during internal and even external examinations have not been so impressed.
Also, sub-optimal academic performance by the majority of pupils at pre-primary school level at secondary to university levels have largely been cited to be the result of ineffective and wrong instructional teaching method by teachers (Ekanem, 2008).
Generally, there is an outcry from the pupils about poor performance in Basic Science among pupils, and teachers are accused by the public as being responsible for the poor academic performance by pupils and some people relate this problem to certain factors like wrong instructional method used in teaching.
Therefore, this study seeks to find out how instructional method affects the pre-primary school pupils’ academic performance in basic science with the view of proffering the effective to be used in teaching Basic Science.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of instructional methods and pre-primary school pupils’ academic performance in Basic Science in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area. Specifically, the study seeks to:
- Determine the pupils’ academic performance in Basic Science when demonstration and lecture methods are used in instruction.
- Assess the pupils’ academic performance of male and female when they are taught with demonstration method.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The study will be significant in the following ways:
- It will enlighten Basic Science teachers and pre-primary school pupils on which instructional method (teaching method) would be effective to ensure excellent performance of pupils.
- The study will also form a bedrock to educational sectors to be aware of the kinds of environment that would give rise to the usage of appropriate instructional method of teaching.
- It will also assist teachers and practicing teachers in the acquisition of adequate knowledge about teaching methods.
- Finally, this research is hoped to serve as related literature for those embarking on a future related study.
1.5 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:
- What is the difference in pupils’ academic performance when lecture and demonstration methods are used in instruction and learning of Basic Science?
- What is difference in pupils’ academic performance of male and female pre-primary school pupils taught Basic Science with demonstration method of teaching?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
The two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
- There is no significant difference in academic performance of pre-primary school pupils between those who are taught Basic Science with demonstration method and those who are taught with lecture method.
- There is no significant difference in academic performance of male and female pre-primary school pupils taught basic science with demonstration method of teaching.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
The study was restricted to instructional methods and pre-primary school pupils’ academic performance in basic science in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area. Only Early Childhood Care and education pupils in government primary schools in the study area were involved in the study.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Several problems were encountered in undertaking this research work among are:
- The inability for the researcher to have enough literature, journals, magazines and textbooks in this area of study was a limited factor.
- Lack of funds to procure necessary materials for the study posed another serious problem.
1.9 Definition of Terms
The following terms are operationally defined as they are used in this study:
Academic performance: It is the outcome of education, the extent to which a pupil, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals.
Instructional method: It is a systematic way in which a teacher uses to transfer or receive or share information.
Method: It is a procedure, techniques, or way of doing something, especially in accordance with a definite plan.
Basic Science: This can be seen as the knowledge obtained by observation and testing of facts.