The Effect Jigsaw Co-Operative and Videos Clips Teaching Strategies on the Students’ Academic Achievement in Physics in Secondary Schools
1.1 Background to the Study
Physics is among the three major pillars of science (i.e. Physics, chemistry and Biology). Physics is a branch of science that deals with the structure of matter and the interactions between the fundamental constituents of the observable universe (Aiyelabegan, 2013).
In the broadest sense, Akanbi, (2013) asserted that physics is coined from the Greek physikos which is concerned with all aspects of nature on both the macroscopic and submicroscopic levels. Its scope of study encompasses not only the behaviour of objects under the action of given forces but also the nature and origin of gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear force fields.
Its ultimate objective is the formulation of a few comprehensive principles that bring together and explain all such disparate phenomena. Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its motion and behavior through space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves (Aiyelabegan, 2013).
Physics deals with the study of laws that determine the structure of the universe with reference to the matter and energy in the universe (Ike, 2012). In the words of Olarinoye (2010) “Physics is the most utilized basic science subject in most technology and technology- related profession”.
This merely indicates that the enormous role Physics plays in the technological growth of any nation must not be undermined. It is germane to say that the technological growth of a nation leads to its social and economic development. The importance of Physics for the development of a nation is, therefore, glaring.
Physics is the most basic of the sciences and its concepts and techniques underpin the understanding of other disciplines: A thorough understanding of mechanics is necessary to chemists and material scientists since the structure of every atom in the universe is determined by mechanics.
Physics is also a cross-cutting discipline that has applications in many sectors of economic development, including health, agriculture, water energy and information technology (Odeleye, Olusola and Awodun, 2015) There is no doubt that a good part of the scientific knowledge is derived from the principles of Physics.
The Effect Jigsaw Co-Operative and Videos Clips Teaching Strategies on the Students’ Academic Achievement in Physics in Secondary Schools
Indeed, the knowledge of Physics has led to so many inventions such as the production, application and utilization of integrated circuits, production and use of machines and other contrivances. It also accounts for the discovery and production of hydroelectric power, gas turbine and thermonuclear power plant, telephones, refrigerators, heaters and cookers.
The invention of modern technologies such as Information and Communication Technology (ICT) which has made the world a global village is also part of the benefits of Physics and many other benefits. The principles of radiation used in modern medicine for diagnosis and treatment, the production and use of so many appliances such as electronic gadgets and computers, surgical and astronomical instruments are all traceable to the study of Physics (Ogunleye and Fasakin, 2011).
The Federal Ministry of Education (FME, 2008) regards Physics as a crucial subject for effective living in the modern age of science and technology. This means that it is necessary that every student is given an opportunity to acquire some physics concepts, theory, principles and skills.
These concepts, theory, principles and skills are clearly explained in the objectives of physics education enshrined in the new Senior Secondary School Physics Curriculum. According to the National Policy on Education (Federal Government of Nigeria 2013), the Objectives of Physics to students in the secondary level of education are to: provide basic literacy in physics for functional living in the society;
acquire basic concepts and principles of physics as a preparation for further studies; acquire essential scientific skills and attitudes as a preparation for technological application of physics; and stimulate and enhance creativity.
The study of Physics make students have first-hand experiences of the way a problem situation is tackled by a scientist; inquisitive about their physical environment; enables students to comprehend the major unifying science concepts and pattern such as the principle of conservation of energy and the interrelationship between each composition of living things.
It provides opportunities for students to get acquainted with science process skills such as measuring, observing, experimenting, inferring, predicting, classifying, communicating, and recording of data. Sequel to the above importance of physics, the effective learning of the subject in schools is therefore desirable.
Hence, it will not be an exaggeration to say that Physics occupies the highest practical aspect in science and it is the mother of all other branches of Physical science (Odeleye, Olusola and Awodun, 2015). Therefore, it can be argued that if physics is to be made real and interesting, then, full attention must be paid to the teaching and learning of concepts in physics.
However, despite the importance of physics to the individual and the society, literature review constantly reveals persistent low students‟ performance at all levels. For instance, Eniayeju and Azuka (2014) lamented that statistics from West African Examinations Council (WAEC) indicated that from 2003-2012, less than 40% of Nigerian students obtained credit passes in physics in each of the 10 years in SSCE. Uyuota (2016) rightly cautioned that poor performance in physics at secondary level has spill-over effects on tertiary level physics.
Further, Olusunde and Olaleye (2017) described poor performance as a loss in a country’s financial investment. Poor performance in physics is also evident among Akwa Ibom State senior secondary school students. The implication of here is that the highest percentage of Akwa Ibom State students that qualified for admission into science and technical courses in Nigerian universities is low. This is because of lack of credit pass in physics. This is quite alarming.
Specifically, researchers reported poor academic performance in physics due to students and even teachers perceived difficulty in teaching and learning the area (Abbas, 2008; Hassan, 2010; Idehen, 2012; Choi, 2013). Hassan (2015) lamented that students find it difficult to accurately measure, construct, draw and even re-arrange objects which are basic processes involved in the study of physics.
As for teachers, Idehen (2017) showed that teachers had misconception of some difficult concepts and seemed not to understand the best description of these concepts. It is this misconception that teachers pass to students in a physics class that leads to wrong solution of physics problems. The implication of this situation is that physics makes the least impression on students and their teachers. As such, they avoid many physics concepts and students fail even if they attempt solving physics problems.
Another major obstacle that hinders students’ performance and progress in physics is their inability to retain the learnt concepts. Retention, according to Bichi (2016), is the ability to keep and consequently remember learnt or experienced material at a later time. Retention facilitates transfer of learning for problem solving. When students cannot remember what they learnt before, they become confused.
Such confusion can be the beginning of physics-phobia and avoidance of the subject (Uyuota, 2016). Adeyemi (2013) stressed the importance of retention of learnt concepts by observing that the ways children learn and perceive are reflected in retention scores and that which is imperfectly registered cannot be perfectly retained.
Empirical evidences (Azuka, 2019; Adewumi, 2017) have indicated that traditional lecture method still remains popular among secondary school physics teachers. In the traditional method, the teacher dominates the class with little opportunity for students to participate.
Despite this shortcoming, the method is important as it consumes less lesson time and can be used to teach large class. FME (2014) argued that the method can be used to supplement other innovative methods by making initial presentation of materials and giving clear instructions to students, either in group or individually. Teaching physics is not an exception in this regard.
The Effect Jigsaw Co-Operative and Videos Clips Teaching Strategies on the Students’ Academic Achievement in Physics in Secondary Schools
This shows that much is needed in the area of teaching and learning of physics concepts in order to actualize the desired goals. Nichols (2018), opined that one of the current major concerns is about how to improve instructional strategies in order to assist students successfully progress from practical physics to deductive physics. One of these improved and innovative strategies is the jig saw co-operative and video clips teaching strategies.
Upon finishing the reading, students who read the same portion of the material come together to form an expert group to discuss their assigned portion. After the discussion, group members go back to their home group to teach what they have learnt in their expert group to other members.
After mastering all the sub-topics taught by each expert, individual group members take a short quiz. Individual score is compared with the base score to calculate the individual improvement score, based on which a group’s average improvement score is worked out. The group having the highest average group improvement score is given group recognition by getting a group reward.
Alternatively, a group which has its average group improvement score reaching a pre-determined level can receive a group reward. Thus, each member learns and helps his mates to learn since the success of a group member is the success of all members. Therefore, jigsaw II co-operative learning strategy is a strategy which makes learning and working together a way of life among students.
Moreover, scholars have observed and reported the problem of gender disparity in the students‟ performance in geometry and participation in physics (Amali, Ojogbane and Akume, 2004; Kurumeh, 2006; Abbas, 2008; Ebisine,2010; Haruna, 2012). Researchers in physics education have attributed gender performance differences in physics to the instructional strategies employed by teachers (Okpala & Onocha, 1998; Amali, Ojogbane & Akume, 2004; Kurumeh, 2006).
Moreover, Video clip as a media in education comes as the invention of educational technology. They are termed as instructional video. They are created for use in classrooms or in other educational settings. They are usually evaluated for language use, conflict and length and many of them are packaged as multimedia resources that include students’ workbooks, teacher’s guides, video transcripts and audio tapes.
Agommuoh and Nzewi, (2013) reported that video-taped instruction has the qualities of providing a semi-permanent, complete and audio’s visual record of event. Using instructional videos in teaching is not new. They date back to prehistoric times when cave instructors used 16mm projectors to show cave students examples of insurance company marketing commercials in business courses (Berk, 2019).
Instructional Video as a change instrument in the classroom has undertaken a unique cycle of adoption over time. Broadcast television and film were first used sparingly, primarily as out-of-the classroom forms of enrichment (Greenberg, 2012). Presenting the cycle in the year 1960-1970s, television films were on trend, 1980, video tapes were used, and 1990s marked booming of Two-way videoconferencing, camcorders and video CDs. In the year 2000, DVDs, streaming videos, the popularly youtube, and camera-enabled smart phones were in fashion (Zanetis, 2012).
Video clips used as instructional videos based materials boost student creativity. Access to video can help motivate students and create a distinctive context for their learning experience. Based on a true story- the incorporation of video in the classroom, it has allowed students and teachers to help in broadcasting school announcements, use pre- recorded classes to overcome teacher shortages and influence Internet-based digital video to enhance self-directed learning (Umar, 2012).
Instructional video is of great effect in education. They have the capacity to stir emotions, stimulate viewers, and alter attitudes. Illustrations, sounds, and words have the power to seize attention, to simplify concepts, to help to overcome physical difficulties and restrictions of space, size and time. Moreover, use of Instructional video in teaching and learning can accommodate for the students’ preferences.
Use of a combination of modern educational technology, such as a computer, video, and hypertext with its feature of combining text, graphic art, sound, and. animation, as teaching tools in many educational institutions, marked a new era. The high level of interaction which computer-based teaching provides is the key to its value. The benefits of instructional video as an important tool in teaching and learning of wide range of topics in social studies could enable students understand and learn the subject better.
Instructors and even students rely or use educative videos to learn, compare and understand concepts. Videotape recorders can be used in a number of different ways to enhance teaching and learning in both large groups and small groups. A carefully arranged video can be a good starting point for initiating student discussion of important issues in medical practice.
In our profession, it is also being observed that using video presentations explains and demonstrates ideas and concept regarding our topics easier, hence beneficial on our part (Harrison, 2013). Video images can also be made available via a website for students to view in their private study time. Example includes illustrating clinical conditions, showing clinical skills, and stimulating student discussion.
When illustrating clinical conditions, it is important that students become familiar with the principle signs and symptoms of common clinical conditions. Movement disorders are more easily seen than described. As for showing clinical skills, the correct procedure for basic clinical skills can be presented on video before the students attempt these procedures for themselves, thus, aiding in retaining the skills before performing (Harrison, 2003).
Combination of video and Jigsaw cooperative teaching strategies is of great importance as the video is effective for more than simply showing dynamic processes. Video itself is a tool for learning that when properly applied obtains extensive benefits. It’s also a medium for collaboration, and a language unto itself that is of universal appeal (Kareem, 2013).
The American Public Broadcasting System’s (PBS) annual teacher survey on media and technology, the percentages of teachers finding value in multimedia and video content has increased each year since 2007. Result for 2010 shows that 68 percent believe that video content stimulates discussions. 66 percent believe video increases student motivation. 61 percent believe video is preferred by students.
42 percent believe video directly increases student achievement (Greenberg, 2012). Generally, it implies that video usage increases and enhances students’ learning.
Hsin and Cigas (2013) used short videos to enhance student satisfaction and motivation for an online introductory course in computer science/physics. They achieved a significantly higher percentage of involved students and their average grades increased. Another method to engage and to motivate students is showing entertainment videos (Steffes & Duverger, 2012).
As Steffes and Duverger reported, showing supplementary videos within an entertainment context at the beginning of the class can be used to increase the positive mood of the students. Both previous studies, Bravo et al. (2011) and Steffes and Duverger (2012), emphasize the importance of the proper design of supplementary video content and the methodology of displaying video to students.
The effects of using videos clips and jigsaw teaching strategies are increasing student activity. An important issue is establishing a methodology of embedding video clips in multimedia teaching material in order to improve the learning process (Kay, 2012).
The selection of appropriate video clips and methodology for their display within the teaching materials represents an important issue for curriculum design, leading to positive learning outcomes (McConville & Lane, 2016). Using appropriate teaching media and methods to organize and present only relevant information may also increase the efficiency of the self-learning process (Ruiji, 2012).
The effectiveness of using podcasts as teaching tools has been investigated to identify how these educational videos could be used to help with exam revision (Hill & Nelson, 2015). Hahn (2016) suggests that videos are effective when used to enhance information literacy courses, using a student survey to measure the effectiveness of video lectures.
Hahn’s study showed that the majority of the students found the videos useful in supporting the lectures they had participated in. Students are also comfortable using written materials, since these are often quicker and better designed, but the students who preferred written materials also used the recorded video lectures.
Instructional video is a kind of multimedia that can transmit verbal and non-verbal with the combination of Audio and Visual materials. It develops continuity of thought and offers a reality of experience that stimulates self-activities on the part of the students (Nwoji, 2016).
In instructional video, teacher produces an instructional video package which is played on a video player connected to a television monitor which is put on, for the learner to view. At interval they may choose to stop playing and explain certain points or factors or probably wait till the end of the lesson. Students have the opportunity to repeat the lesson over and over again (Orisabiyi, 2017).
Therefore, it can be seen that other strategies need to be evolved and tried in order to realize the much desired improved academic performance and gender parity in physics.
In view of this, the present study investigated the influence of Jigsaw co-operative and video clips teaching strategies on students’ academic achievement in physics in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The mass failure recorded by students in physics certificate examinations in secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State has been a matter of concern to parents, guardians, government and even students themselves.
To alleviate the performance of students in the subject, the Akwa Ibom State government has provided free and compulsory education and has provided free textbooks in the subject from senior secondary one to three to enable the students to read and prepare for the examination.
However, despites the effort of the government, there have been report of persistent failure of the students in physics and these have cause serious confusion among the stakeholders in education such as the government, parents, teachers and even in the students themselves.
These have raised a question by the researcher whether the instructional strategy employ by the teacher in teaching physics could influence the academic achievement of students?
This is because the instructional strategy selected constitutes an integral part of teaching and if the instructional strategy selected are not students’ centered, the teaching of Physics will be mainly verbalization of words without adequate understanding of the concept by the students.
Also, students may not be sufficiently expose to discipline in class during the teaching of physics as some of the instructional strategy do not encourage students’ participation during the process of teaching and learning physics.
This attitude has rendered physics teaching and learning in many of the secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom ineffective because students hear when you teach them, they see when you demonstrate and they understand when they practice the concept presented to them.
From the foregoing, there is a strong indication that academic achievements of students in physics are a correlates of teaching method utilized by teachers in the process of instructions. Therefore, careful and cautious attention should be accorded to it in order to build and sustain efficient achievement of students in physics in Nigeria.
It is therefore based on the above importance of instructional delivery that this study wants to examine whether Jigsaw co-operative teaching strategy can be used to ameliorate the poor students’ academic achievement in physics. This study investigates effect of Jigsaw co-operative and videos clips teaching strategies on the students’ academic achievement in physics in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect Jigsaw co-operative and videos clips teaching strategies on the students’ academic achievement in physics in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area. Specifically, the main objectives of this study are to:
- Determine the difference between mean achievement scores of students taught using Jigsaw co-operative strategy and those taught using videos clips teaching strategy in physics in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.
- Determine the difference between mean achievement scores of male and female students taught using Jigsaw co-operative strategy in physics in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.
- Determine the difference between mean achievement scores of male and female students taught using videos clips teaching strategy in physics in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:
- What difference exists between mean achievement scores of students taught using Jigsaw co-operative strategy and those taught using videos clips teaching strategy in physics?
- What difference exists between mean achievement scores of male and female students taught using Jigsaw co-operative strategy in physics?
- What difference exists between mean achievement scores of male and female students taught using taught using videos clips teaching strategy in physics?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
- There is no significant difference between mean achievement scores of students taught using Jigsaw co-operative strategy and those taught using videos clips teaching strategy in physics.
- There is no significant difference between mean achievement scores of male and female students taught using Jigsaw co-operative strategy in physics.
- There is no significant difference between mean achievement scores of male and female students taught using videos clips teaching strategy in physics.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The finding of this study would be useful in the following to
Physics Students: The study will hopefully benefit students immensely by reducing the general physics-phobia worrying them, especially at post-basic level of education due to the use of ineffective instructional strategies by physics teachers. This is because as students learn from their peers and also teach their peers, the perceived tension in learning physics is relaxed. Thus, the study will benefit students in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
Physics teachers: It is also hoped that the findings of the study will also reduce the distaste students and their teachers have towards teaching and learning physics by changing their view of physics as a difficult subject in sciences. Physics teachers will come to realize that with the application of suitable methods of teaching, like Jigsaw co-operative and video clips teaching strategies in physics, can be easily taught and learnt by students.
Textbook publishers: Also, the study will hopefully benefit textbook developers by advocating appropriate instructional strategies in teaching physics such as jigsaw co-operative and video clips teaching strategies in their subsequent publications for improved teaching and learning of physics at secondary level of education.
Educational administrators: It is hoped that the study will provide materials that could be used to enrich training and re-training packages for both pre-service and in-service physics teachers. This will help educational planners and administrators as well as professional bodies in physics when it comes to physics teacher professional development.
Professional bodies in physics: The findings of this research could serve as a reference material for teachers and professional bodies in physics like Nigerian Institute of Physics (NIP) and STAN to recognize possible gender differences among students in terms of academic performance in Physics and plan how to popularize the subject among all the students to minimize gender differences by application and support towards implementation of jigsaw co-operative and video clips teaching strategies.
Therefore, it is hoped that the findings of the study will hopefully contribute towards the resolution of the debate on gender and performance in Physics. In this regard, it is anticipated that the results of this study will provide further empirical evidence as to methods of teaching that could be adopted to reduce differences in gender performance in Physics.
Parents: The study could help provide strong empirical basis for improvement and modification of the methods of teaching Physics which could lead to improved academic performance among students. Such improvements and modifications will also make parents to be happy to see their children passing physics for their future educational progress.
Fellow researchers: It is hoped that the findings of the study will stimulate and promote further researches. Fellow researchers in physics education will find the results worthy of discussion and dissemination to stimulate and promote further researches. In addition to that, fellow researchers will also benefit from the study by providing them with recent literature materials that will guide them in carrying out further researches in physics education.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
The study was restricted to an investigation into effect Jigsaw co-operative and videos clips teaching strategies on the students’ academic achievement in physics in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area. It is also limited in scope to selected public secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area only.
Hence research findings on the issue were not generalized as it’s remained valid only to selected secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area where the investigation was conducted. Also, the study limited its scope to only senior secondary two (SS2) students in public secondary schools.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In quest to complete this research the study was faced with lack of adequate funding and poor rural roads networks which limited the extent of this research work as well as lack of sufficient time due to other academic work of the researcher. These challenges made the researcher to reduce the sample size as well as the scope of the study for effective analysis.
1.9 Definition of Terms
The following were defined as used in the study:
Jigsaw Cooperative Teaching Strategy: Jigsaw is a cooperative learning strategy that enables each student of a “home” group to specialize in one aspect of a topic.
Academic Achievement: This is the scores of students obtain in a Physics Achievement Test (PAT).
Lecture Method: This is an instructional strategy which involves verbal presentation of ideas, concepts, generalizations and facts. In this strategy the teacher talks most of the time while the students remain passive and receive the information impacted on them.
Gender: This refers to male or female students studying physics.