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The Impact of Study Habits and Academic Performance of Students in Air Pollution in Secondary Schools

The Impact of Study Habits and Academic Performance of Students in Air Pollution in Secondary Schools

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the Study

The effectiveness of any educational system is gauged to the extent the pupils involved in the system achieve, whether it is in cognitive, conative, or psychomotor domain. Achievement refers to the scholastic or academic achievement of the student at the end of an educational programme.

It is to this concept that the term achievement is referred to in the study. Academic achievement indicates the numerical score of a student’s knowledge. It measures the degree of a student’s adaptation to school work and to the educational system which describes academic achievement in terms of the actual mark or score obtained in an examination or a test.

Achievement is regarded as a performance that leads to ‘something’, the something referring to the progress of the students at school. Academic achievement is represented by the actual mark obtained by the participants in an examination. Success is typically defined in terms of performance, and grades represent the most obvious and universally accepted indicator of academic achievement performance in educational context.

The student’s academic achievement has a very important place as well as in the process of learning. Poor habits of study are of the important cause of educational backwardness. It is used to pass judge one’s total potentialities and capacities which are frequently by examination results.

Research on the correlation between study habit and student’s academic performance has for long received attention from scholars and educational agencies. Study habits are learning tendencies that enable students to work individually.

Study habits are measured directly through reports, examination, assessment and rating. Attitude towards study has a great contribution in academic achievement and good study pattern. Successful learners adopt positive attitude towards study and do not waste time or energy over what they have to do.

If the learning experience is pleasant, the learner’s attitude and motivation usually is positive and if the learning experience is not pleasant he tends to avoid. Study techniques may be of extensive and intensive type. Extensive studying is related to reading a particular text book, magazine or journal in order to have an idea of the basic information given in the material.

The Impact of Study Habits and Academic Performance of Students in Air Pollution in Secondary Schools

Surveying and skimming has been identified as extensive studying technique. Intensive studying on the other hand deals with reading a particular text book or course material in order to achieve full understanding of such material for the examination.

Ekwe (2015) posited that the students occupy the central position in the teaching and learning process and learning cannot be forceful and as such the students must be ready to learn before they can learn. However, due to the important position occupied by students in the teaching learning process, their approaches to learning become necessary to be investigated.

Bamin, Kazi and Hasan (2013) observed that in addition to personal and mental developments, for students need to study effectively after the lesson in the class as it is critical for ensuring ones access to social, economic and civic life in the 21st century. In recent time, senior secondary school students attending secondary schools, experience a problem of coping with the transition from senior secondary schools (Frank, 2016).

One concept in particular which has provided some valuable insights into learning in both academic and other educational settings is learning style.

Learning styles is defined as a regular way of functioning that reflects the underlying causes of learning behavior (Keefe, 1987). Hartley (1998) opined that learning style is a student’s consistent way of responding to using stimuli in the context of learning. A learning style is a preferential mode, through which a student likes to master learning, solve problems, thinks or simply reach in a pedagogical situation (Allison & Hayes, 2019).

The concept of learning style is used to describe individual differences in the way people learn. Each person has a unique way to absorb and process experiences and information. Confounding research and, in many instances, application of learning style theory has begat the myriad of methods used to categorize learning styles.

No single commonly accepted method currently exists, but alternatively several potential scales and classifications are in use. Most of these scales and classifications are more similar than dissimilar and focus on environmental preferences, sensory modalities, personality types, and/or cognitive styles.

Lack of a conceptual framework for both learning style theory and measurement is a common and central criticism in this area. The following are the types of learning styles;

  • Visual learning Style: It is a style in which a learner utilizes graphs, charts, maps and diagrams. It also involves Sight; emphasis on seeing, watching, viewing, drawing. Visual learners think in pictures and learn best in visual images. They depend on the instructor‟s or facilitator‟s non-verbal cues such as body language to help with understanding. Sometimes, visual learners favour sitting in the front of the They also take descriptive note of other materials being presented.
  • Auditory learning style: Auditory learning is a learning style in which a person learns through An auditory learner depends on hearing and speaking as a main way of learning. They also use their listening and repeating skills to sort through the information that is sent to them. It also entails words; emphasis on listening and speaking. These individuals discover information through listening and interpreting information by the means of pitch, emphasis and speed. These individuals gain knowledge from reading out loud in the classroom and may not have a full understanding of information that is written.
  • Kinesthetic learning style: A kinesthetic-tactile learning style requires that you manipulate or touch material to learn. Kinesthetic-tactile techniques are used in combination with visual and/or auditory study techniques, producing multi-sensory learning.
  • It also involves movement and action; emphasis on doing, direct involvement, demonstrating, showing etc. Individuals that are kinesthetic learn best with and active “hands-on” approach. These learners favour interaction with the physical world. Most of the time kinesthetic learners have a difficult time staying on target and can become unfocused effortlessly

Crow and Crow (2016) asserted that study requires a purpose and what one learns as a result of study depends largely upon the degree to which one succeeds in achieving that aim or purpose. Child (2015) asserts that we talk about forming bad or good habits in many everyday activities in both social and educational contexts.

We behave, by and large, in characteristic ways because we have discovered through experience that some responses are more effective than others. It is therefore against this background that this study has deemed it necessary to investigate the influence of study habit on academic performance of Students in Uyo Local Government Area.

The Impact of Study Habits and Academic Performance of Students in Air Pollution in Secondary Schools

  • Statement of the Problem

The teaching and learning of basic science in Nigerian schools has series of challenges owing to the fact that the process involves the effort of both the teachers and the students. Thus, one of the major challenges of the educational system is lack of students’ participation in the teaching and learning process at the junior secondary level of education, which also affects the quality delivery of educational institutions.

This implies that the students occupy the central position in the teaching and learning process and learning cannot be forceful as such the students must be ready to learn before they can learn. However, due to the important position occupy by students in the teaching learning process, their approach or approaches to learning becomes necessary to be investigated upon.

Similarly, there is tremendous pressure on students to earn good grades because academic performance is assumed to possess predictive value on the student’s future endeavor. The importance of academic performance has raised several queries among educational researchers.

In search for an answer to the queries, a number of attempts have been made by researchers to identify factors which influence academic performance. It is therefore based on the above importance that a question arises in mind of the researcher whether this study habit is related to academic performance in basic science or not? Little study has been done looking at the study habits of students at any level of the educational system especially in secondary schools in Uyo, much which is directed to mainly the senior secondary school students.

Since we live in the information age, this fact clearly makes new demand on the educational system, requiring radical changes on “what” and “how” students learn and why students are not doing as per expectations. It is important to have a clear understanding of what benefits or hinders one’s educational achievement. This is the premise which motivated the researcher to investigate study habits and academic performance of students in air pollution secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to investigate study habits and academic performance of students in air pollution in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area. Specifically, the main objectives of this study are to:

  • Investigate the difference between the mean academic performance of students with personal timetable and those without personal timetable in air pollution in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area
  • Investigate the difference between the mean academic performance of students who write note and those who do not in air pollution secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area
  • Investigate the difference between the mean academic performance of students who review past questions and those who do not in air pollution secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area
  • Investigate the difference between the mean academic performance of students who study in group and those who do not in air pollution secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area

1.4       Research Questions    

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

  1. What difference exists between the mean academic performance of students who have personal timetable and those without personal timetable in air pollution?
  2. What difference exists between the mean academic performance of students who write note and those who do not write note in class in air pollution?
  3. What difference exists between the mean academic performance of students who review past questions and those who do not in air pollution?
  4. What difference exists between the mean academic performance of students who study in group and those who do not in air pollution?

1.5       Research Hypotheses    

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

  1. There is no significant difference between academic performance of students with personal timetable and those without personal timetable in air pollution
  2. There is no significant difference between academic performance of students who write note and those who do not in air pollution
  3. There is no significant difference between mean academic performance of students who review past questions and those who do not in air pollution
  4. There is no significant difference between mean academic performance of students who study in group and those who do not in air pollution 

1.6       Significance of the Study 

The finding of this study will be useful in the following ways: To the students, the study is designed toward helping Students to improve in their study habits. To the teachers, it is believed that this study will help them to understand the different study habits adopted by students and therefore use teaching methods that will enhance effective learning irrespective of the students’ study habits.

To the counselors, it will help in yielding a good basis for students counseling on self-discipline and the right attitude towards studies. The policy makers and planners in education like Ministry of Education will have basis for organizing seminar for students on how to adopt and harness their study habit. As a data bank, it is envisaged that this research work will serve as a store of information for future researchers who may wish to research further into the same topic on related topic.

  • Delimitations of the Study

The study was restricted to an investigation into study habits and academic performance of students in air pollution secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area.

It is also limited in scope to selected public secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area only. Hence research finding on the issue was not generalized as it’s remained valid only to selected secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area where the investigation was conduct. 

1.8       Limitations of the Study

The study was faced with lack of adequate funding and poor rural roads networks which limited the extent of this research work as well as lack of sufficient time due to other academic work of the researcher.

1.9       Definition of Terms 

The following were defined as used in the study:

Study Habit: These are the various ways adopted by students to acquire knowledge, skills, ideas and competence in school subjects like Basic science. These include personal timetable, writing note, reviewing of past questions and studying in group, as used in the study.

Academic Performance: This is the scores students obtain in a Basic science Achievement Test (BAT).

Gender: This refers to male or female students studying Basic Science.

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