Teachers’ Motivation and Job Satisfaction among Biology Teachers in Secondary Schools
The purpose of this study was to examine teachers’ motivation and job satisfaction among Biology teachers in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area. Three research questions were raised to guide the study; survey research design was adopted for the study.
The population of the study was all Biology teachers in the study area, and a sample size of twenty (20) teachers were selected from ten schools using purposive sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire, while the data collected were analyzed using percentage.
The result revealed that teacher’s motivations such as prompt payment of salary, regular promotion, and provision of in-service training to teachers enhanced Job Satisfaction among teachers in secondary schools. Based on the findings of the study, It was recommended among others that teachers’ salary should be paid promptly and as at when due to motivate them to carry out their duties effectively.
Teachers’ Motivation and Job Satisfaction among Biology Teachers in Secondary Schools
1.1 Background to the Study
Productivity in organization is a function of how well the employees perform their various tasks. This productivity is dependent upon the extent of job satisfaction among the workers which is as the result of motivation. The term motivation is believed to have had its origins in the latin word “motives” which means “a moving causes (Ekong, 2018). Motivation is defined as the forces which act on a person externally or internally to initiate a certain behaviour. It can also be describes as the forces that account for the arousal, selection, direction and continuation of a certain behaviour (Ekong, 2018).
Motivation can be understood from two dimensions according to Njiru (2014) that is psychological and management perspectives. Psychological perspectives refers to the internal mental state of an individual. While management perspective is an activity that managers do their employees in an attempt to boost their productivity in the organization.
Job satisfaction is the collection feelings and beliefs that people have about their current job. People’s level or degrees of job satisfaction can range from extreme satisfaction to dissection. People’s have different attitudes about various aspect of their jobs such the kind of work they do, the co-workers, supervisors, their salary, their working environment (Njiru, 2014).
Teachers motivation and job satisfaction are closely related concepts which are fundamental in organizations for any significant production. Motivation is the motive (drive) for satisfy a need (wants) while job satisfaction is the contentment experienced when need is satisfied.
Where the employees need are not satisfied, organizations production could be low, but when the employees need are sufficiently met, their satisfaction increases and motivation will rise and this lead to higher productivity.
The factors that determine job satisfaction have been categorized as extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic factors include element like prompt payment of salary, increase in salary, timely promotion, relationship with co-workers conducive working environment, provision of inservice training like seminars, workshops and conferences. On the other hand intrinsic factors include personality, intelligence, ability and age to mention but few.
Teacher’s job satisfaction may have strong implication for students’ achievement. If the teachers’ working condition is improve, then he teacher output will also improve which will lead to the increase in students’ performance (Armstrong 2016, as cited in Ekong 2018).
Ekong also noted that job satisfaction described the feelings, attitudes or preference of an individual’s regarding to his/her work. It indicates how contented an individual is towards his/her work. Ekong (2018) also defined job satisfaction as the attitudes and feelings people have about their work. Positive and favourable attitude towards the job indicate job satisfaction, while negative and unfavourable attitude indicate dissatisfaction. This research study sought to examines motivation to teacher will result into job satisfaction among Biology teachers in secondary schools.
The dissatisfaction among Biology teachers’ could lead to poor performance in their job. Factors that always bring about dissection among teachers include; work load, poor working condition, delay in payment of salary, delay in promotion, poor housing, inadequate supply of teaching/learning resources among others as noted by (Orikodi 2017, as cited in Ekong 2018).
The teacher is the one that translate educational curriculum and objectives into knowledge and skills and transfer them to the students in the classroom for a better society. Therefore teachers need to be motivated for effective job performance. this is the reason that the researchers considered it necessary to examine teachers’ motivation and job satisfaction among Biology teachers in secondary schools.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Teachers are one of the key players in a learning environment their objectives of moulding students to excel in examinations and eventually succeed in life. Teachers therefore need to be motivated to enhance their level of job satisfaction in order to undertake level their duty effectively and efficiently.
Unfortunately, the reverse is the case, teachers are not working in an unsatisfactory conditions with heavy workloads due to shortage oif teachers, poor salary, delay in payment of salary and promotion, lack of instructional resources to facilitate the teaching/learning process, non organization of in-service training and unconducive working condition among teachers.
Most of them are not carrying out their duty the way it suppose to be. Some of them go to school in the morning just to sign time book and left, while some even abandon their teaching work and look for greener pasture. Those that stay come with things to hawk in schools.
When this happened, the students suffers which result into poor academic achievement among the students. Based on this problem, it motivated the researchers to carry out research on teachers motivation and job satisfaction among Biology teachers in secondary schools.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The general purpose of this study is to examine teachers’ motivation and job satisfaction among Biology teachers in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area. Specifically the study aimed at;
- Accessing how the prompt payment of teachers’ salary will affect the job satisfaction among Biology teachers in secondary schools.
- Examining the impacts of regular/timely promotion will have on teachers’ job satisfaction among Biology teachers in secondary schools
- Investigating the impacts of how in-service training can affect job satisfaction among Biology teachers in secondary schools.
1.4 Research questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.
- To what extent does prompt payment of teachers salary promotes job satisfaction among biology teachers in secondary schools?
- To what extent does teachers’ promotion enhance job satisfaction among biology teachers in secondary schools?
- To what extent does in-service training affect job satisfaction among biology teachers in secondary schools?
1.5 Significance of the study
The findings of this study will be of great benefits to the researchers, student, educational stakeholders/government and other researchers in the following ways; the educational stakeholders and government will see the need of providing conducive working environment to the teachers as the means of motivating the teachers.
The teacher will stand a chance of benefitting from this work when government embarks on providing adequate motivation to the teachers. The students will then improve in their academic performance because teachers will effective as the result of being motivated. This study will also served as a reference point to other researchers who will carry out research in the same or similar study.
1.6 Delimitation of the study
This study is delimited to teachers’ motivation and job satisfaction among Biology teachers in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area. the population of this study are all the Biology teachers in the study area. the sub-variable considered are; prompt payment of salary, teachers promotion, and provision of in-service training.
1.7 Limitations of the study
The following challenges was confronted by the researchers in the process of conducting this study;
- Financial constraint: High cost of transportation in visiting the selected schools for this study was a great problem to the researcher.
- School location: most of the schools selected for this study were located in the rural area, so bad raod network become a problem.
1.8 Definitions of terms
The following area defined for easy understanding of the study;
- Motivation: This is the forces which act on a person externally or internally to initial certain behaviours in them.
- Teachers: A person who has been professionally trained and lucent to interpret school curriculum to the learners.
- Job satisfaction: This is the collection of feelings and belief that people have about their current jobs
- Prompt payment of salary: This refer to the act of paying teachers their salary as at when due.
- Promotion: This refers to an advancement in rank or position.
- In-service training: This refers to the training given to the teachers who are already in service.
- Biology: This is one of the pure science subject which study plants and animals.