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School Variables on the Academic Performance of Pupils in Basic Science in Primary Schools

School Variables on the Academic Performance of Pupils in Basic Science in Primary Schools

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine school variables and academic performance of pupils in Basic Science in primary schools in Ibeno Local Government Area. Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Review of the related literature was carry out. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for this study. The population consisted of all primary six pupils in the study area.

Sample size of 120 primary six pupils were randomly selected from six schools using simple random sampling technique. The instrument adopted for data collection was the pupils’ raw scores in Basic science. The data collected were analysed using independent t-test. The result revealed that pupils in urban schools performed better than those in rural schools, also pupils in private schools performed better than those in public schools.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

School is noted as a learning ground or public place for all learners. Therefore, the essence of establishing school is to develop intelligent of human to acquire knowledge and skills on how to live profitable life to himself/herself and the society.

Based on the importance attached to education, the government therefore established ministry of Education, employed teachers and provided facilities in conducive environment for the training of the young ones. The provision of National Policy on Education (2014) pointed out that all Nigerians, irrespective of tribes, religions, sex and class be given equal opportunities to be educated for the education develop the totality of man and his environment.

Abia (2008) discussed that for an environment to be called school environment, it must have consisted of those necessary, materials or factors that make it suitable for teaching and learning. School environmental factors therefore include those essential materials used in the teaching process of Basic Science like teachers, equipment, laboratories, library, classroom arrangement and location of schools, school leadership and management.

Basic Science is one of the sciences that can help this country to achieve its goals as it deals worthy with things or materials that can be found in the learners’ environment.  A stimulating learning environment is always an ideal place of learning.

Okon (2008) posited that a child’s intellectual endowment is slowed down when the operational environment is strongly non-stimulating. By this opinion, irrespective of the varying intellectual background of the pupils on the class, when facilitates are available and used accordingly, to the tendency of higher academic performance is assured.

Inyang (2009) further noted that Basic Science cannot be successfully implemented until the learning environment should be located in a conducive place, should be well equipped with teaching materials such as laboratories equipment. He further maintained that teaching becomes difficult and ineffective when instructional materials are not available or inadequate in the school.

School Variables on the Academic Performance of Pupils in Basic Science in Primary Schools

Terenzini (2016) opined that a school located in a rural area will have all the characteristics of a rural environment, similarly, an urban school will have an environment-based activities peculiar to its environment but different from a rural location. Thus, as the school environment differs, the level of academic performance of pupils also may differ. The consequence is that the quality of education may not be even, and the National Policy of Education for a democratic egalitarian society cannot be attained unsentimentally.

Thompson (2014) opined that teachers in private schools are more committed to their duties than those in the public schools. He further maintained that in a private schools, strict supervision existed, teachers come to school as early as possible, they do not missed their classes and they cannot leave the school before closing time.

On his opinion, in public schools, it is not so. Therefore the academic performance mostly differs between the pupils in public schools and those in private schools.

Lawson (2014) outlined some factors that determine school variables to include block, library equipment, light, good road network, quietness, sitting materials, number of qualify teachers and other schools’ surrounding.

 These factors are important since they may or may not increase the child’s interest to learn effectively which may also have significant influence on the academic performance of a child. It was based on these background that the researcher considered it necessary to examine school variables and pupils’ academic performance in Basic Science in Primary School in Ibeno L.G.A.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Basic science at the primary school level is the best foundation that should be laid on pupils for them to function effectively in sience. But findings have shown that the academic performance of of pupils in this important subject has been poor across the state in recent years (Essien, 2015).

The causes of this poor academic performance of pupils in Basic science in the primary schools system has been attributed to so many facros such as home variables, teachers characteristics, pupil’s attitudes, teaching methods, peer group, school variables etc.

Based on this problem, it motivated the researcher to investigate on the impact of school variables on the academic performance of pupils in Basic science in primary schools in Ibeno L.G.A.

1.3 Purpose of the study

The main purpose of this study is to examine school variables on the academic performance of pupils in Basic Science in primary schools in Ibeno Local Government Area. Specifically, the study aimed at;

  1. Examine the influence of school location on the academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Ibeno L.G.A.
  2. Examine the influence of school ownership on the academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Ibeno L.G.A.

1.4   Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

(i)     How does school location influence the academic performance of Basic Science pupils in primary schools in Ibeno L.G.A.?

(ii)    How does school ownership influenced the academic performance of basic Science pupils in primary schools in Ibeno L.G.A.

 1.5   Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.

  1. There is no significant difference between the academic performance of Basic science pupils in urban primary schools and those in rural primary schools in Ibeno L.G.A.
  2. There is no significant difference between the academic performance of Basic science pupils in private primary schools and those in public primary schools in Ibeno L.G.A.

1.6   Significance of the Study

It is hopeful that this study will be beneficial in the following ways:

(i)     It will help the parents to know the type of school to enroll their wards.

(ii)    Government will see the need to improve the standard public schools across the state.

(iii)    Pupils will also benefit in that the standard of education will be improved, as the result, there will be a conducive learning environment.

(iv) This study will also served as the reference material to the future researchers who will have interest this topic.

1.7   Delimitation of the study

This study delimitated  to school variables and academic performance of pupils in Basic Science in primary schools in Ibeno L.G.A. The School variables considered in this study were; school location (urban and rural) and school location (urban and rural) and school ownership (private and public).

1.8 Limitation of the Study

The following challenges were confronted by the researcher in the course of this study;

  • Financial constraint: High cost of transportation to visit all the selected schools for this study posed serious problem to the researcher.
  • Time constraint: The period of time given for the completion of this study was not enough.
  • School Location: The long distance between the schools visited by the researcher also posed some problems to the researcher because some schools demanded that the researcher should cross rivers before getting to the schools.

1.9   Definition of terms

The following terms were defined as they were utilized in the study.

  1. School variables: These are those factors around the school environment which influence the academic performance of pupils either positive or negative.
  2. School Ownership: This refer to school that is managed and own by either government (public schools) or individual/organization (private schools).
  3. School Location: This refers to an area where the school is located which may be either urban or rural.

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