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Influence of Pupils’ Motivation and Academic Performance of Pupils in Creative Arts in Early Childhood Care Education

Influence of Pupils’ Motivation and Academic Performance of Pupils in Creative Arts in Early Childhood Care Education

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine pupils’ motivation and academic performance of pupils in Creative Art in Early Childhood Care Education in Esit Eket Local Government Area. Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.

Review of the related literature was carry out. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for this study. The population consisted of all primary six pupils in the study area. Sample size of 120 primary six pupils were randomly selected from six schools using simple random sampling technique.

The instrument adopted for data collection was the pupils’ raw scores in Creative Arts. The data collected were analysed using independent t-test. The result revealed that pupils whose teacher use reward performed better than their counterpart whose teacher do not use reward. Moreover, pupils whose teacher use praise performed better than their counterpart whose teacher do not use praise.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study

In most developing countries especially Nigeria, there is a widespread desire to change the educational system to meet the new social and technological needs. In a country like Nigeria, dropout tendencies as a result of pupils, teachers, students, lecturers etc. not been motivated have posed a lot of repercussions for the educational sector. Organizations invest a lot on their employees in terms of induction and training, developing, maintaining and retaining them in their organization.

Significantly, motivation is very essential to the continuing growth of educational systems around the world and they rank alongside professional knowledge and skills, center competencies, educational resources as well as strategies, in genuinely determining educational success and performance.

Motivation has been used as a psychological tool to encourage pupils to increase academic performance in schools (Mushi (2013). Motivation is the internal feeling that arises from the desires and needs of an individual. It is the continuous process of needs and satisfaction that stimulate individual to perform.

It is the process to inspire an individual to utilize his/her best capabilities for the achievements of particular goals. Motivational techniques when used by the teachers, parents could arouse interest, enthusiasm and regulate the individual behavior in order to perform different tasks with interest for the attainment of particular goals.

According to Stipek (2012), motivation can be classified into intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation is the pleasure and interest in activities that exists within an individual rather than outside pressure. It is the foundation of having enjoyment in performing activity without any external incentives.

Influence of Pupils’ Motivation and Academic Performance of Pupils in Creative Arts in Early Childhood Care Education

Whereas individuals who are extrinsically motivated need, rewards and the punishments to engaged in any activity. For pupils rewards can be in the form of grades and marks in examination. Achievement motivation is concerned with achieving the successful outcomes at the end of the process.

Sampson (2009) shared the belief that the influence of parental motivation has on child educational performance is greater than the one peers influence has. This kind of encouragement and motivation from parents range from the age in which they want their child to start school, the type of school they want for their child, how often they visit the child while in school, up to the assistance being rendered in doing their child assignments.

All these are made possible because most children often imitate their parents and spend a lot of time with their parents than in the company of their peers. Thus, parent could easily channel the educational performance of the child along their own ends. It is general belief that two good heads are better than one. It is in view of this that joint cooperation of father and mother may be necessary if a child is to perform well. Thus, the child is highly dependent upon his parents for social reinforcement and his/her behaviour tends to conform to the norms, rules and regulations of the society in which he/she lives.

Children from families that encourage and value the education of children are motivated, stimulated and as such are able to achieve better intelligence test in the school simply because they receive more attention and have more access to conducive and stimulating learning environment. Parents are the first educators of the child while the teachers continue the education of the child. During the pre school age parents lay the foundation for learning that is, various forms upon which teachers now build upon when the children get to the school (Asiyika, 2010).

However, children are either giving little or no adequate attention needed for their academic performance and are exposed to situations which can have negative influence on their behaviours and attitude towards learning. It was shown that in an attempt by parents to solve socio-economic problems many do not join their children in constructive pursuits thus leaving the children without proper guidance.

Nyarko (2010) in a study also obtained comprehensive picture of processed in the home that promotes school learning. These include high expectation and aspiration of parents, language environment of homes, academic guidance and support in the home, stimulation in the home and general work habits of the family.

Much as the situation described here cause concern, it is not yet known why some pupils fail to attain the standard expected of the motivation such as teachers’ use of praise and reward in Creative Arts in Early Childhood Care Education in Esit Eket Local Government Area.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

 One of the important factor in realizing educational aim and objectives in Creative Arts as a subject is the role of the teachers in motivating his/her pupils during the cause of teaching. The performance of the pupils toward achieving education goals is said to be very important in most society today.

Hence, little attention is paid on motivation as a strategy to improve learning and the academic performance. The negative performance of pupils towards educational aims and objectives could be associated with the low motivational strategies of teachers most especially in the study of Creative Art as a subject.

Nevertheless, teachers have the biggest impact on the success and flaws of pupils academic performance because their motivational strategies are instrumental in helping them to learn effectively. Similarly, lack of motivational strategies have been attributed to teachers poor motivational skill among the pupils which some pupils have deviated in their studies.

Furthermore, motivation may be aroused by either extrinsic or intrinsic stimuli both of which are important in directing and regulating the learner’s behavior towards attainment of the desired goals. Pupils must therefore be motivated by the teacher through giving out rewards and praise to them when due which will go a long way in motivating them to improve in their academic performance.

In order to improve on the need for good motivational strategies, the study seeks to examine on pupils motivation and academic performance of pupils in Creative Art in Early Childhood Care Education in Esit Eket Local Government Area.

1.3  Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine the influence of pupils’ motivation and academic performance of pupils in Creative Arts in Early Childhood Care Education in Esit Eket Local Government Area. Specifically, the study intends to:

  1. determine teachers’ use of reward on academic performance of pupils in Creative Arts in Early Childhood Care Education in Esit Eket Local Government Area.
  2. examine teachers’ use of praise on academic performance of pupils in Creative Arts in Early Childhood Care Education in Esit Eket Local Government Area.

1.4  Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide the study:

(i)  To what extent does teachers’ use of reward influence pupil’s academic performance in Creative Arts in Early Childhood Care Education in Esit Eket Local Government Area?

(ii) How does teachers’ use of praise influence pupils academic performance in Creative Arts in Early Childhood Care Education in Esit Eket Local Government Area.

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study will be significant to teachers, pupils, curriculum planners, as well as society in general.

  1. Teachers will be benefit from the findings of the study as will provide an insight on the actual motivational skills that will encourage pupils academic performance.
  2. The study will enlighten the pupils on the important of motivation in classroom since it will encourage their academic performance.
  3. The study will also serve as a reference materials to other researchers who may carry out research on the same or similar topic.
  4. The study will also help the pupils to participate on academic activities since motivational strategies will improve their academic performance in the subject.
  5. Parents will also benefit when pupils are being motivated in the sense that the pupils will be responsible to their parents and also the money spent on them will not be in vein because they will help in carrying out family responsibilities.

1.6 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

(i) There is no significant difference between academic performance of pupils whose teachers use reward and those whose teacher do not.

 (ii) There is no significant difference between academic performance of pupils whose teachers use praise and those whose teacher do not.

1.7  Limitation of the Study

The following challenges were confronted by the researcher in the course of carrying out this study.

  1. Financial Constraint: High cost of transportation in visiting all the schools in the study area was a problem to the researcher selected some of the schools.
  2. Time Constraint: The period of time given for the completion of this study was not enough due to the fact that the researcher had others academic activities to carry out as at the time of this study.
  3. School Location: Most of the schools visited by the researcher were located in the rural areas which caused some problems to the researcher due to bad road network.

1.8 Delimitation of the Study

The study was delimited to Pupils’ Motivation and Academic Performance of Pupils in Creative Arts in Early Childhood Care Education in Esit Eket Local Government Area.

1.9 Definition of Terms

The following terms were defined as they are utilized in this study for clarity.

Motivation: This is the process of arousing and sustain goal-oriented behavior which encourage person to do learn.

Praise: The expression of approval or admiration for someone or something that is worth doing.

Reward: It is something given in return for a good thing done, a service rendered, or some merit earned.

Pupils: This refers to a person who is studying or learning at a place of primary institution of learning.

Academic Performance: This refers to the total outcome of the pupils performance or effort in test assignment and examination scores or results.

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