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Students’ Characteristics and Academic Performance in Economics

Students’ Characteristics and Academic Performance in Economics

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This study was designed to examine students’ characteristics and their academic performance in Economics in selected secondary schools in Oron local government area of Akwa Ibom State. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The population of this study comprised of (4280) of all the senior secondary school students offering Economics in the study area.

Random sampling technique was used in selecting ten (10) secondary schools for the study, thirty (30) students were randomly selected from each of the selected schools which make up a total of three hundred (300) students as sample size. Survey design was used for the study. The questionnaire was the major instrument used for data collection. The data collected were analyzed using simple percentage.

From the findings, the result revealed that students’ characteristics really influence their academic performance in Economics. Finally, it was recommended that schools could offer programs for a child and parents should also work together to establish a closer integration. This closer integration could increase self-control and decrease the probability that the child will turn to deviant behaviour. 


Title page





Table of contents


1.1    Background to   the study

1.2    Statement of the problem

1.3    Purpose of the study

1.4    Significance of the study

1.5    Research questions

1.6    Limitation of the study

1.7    Definition of terms


2.1    Self-efficacy and student’s academic performance in Economics

2.2    Learning style and student’s academic performance  in Economics

2.3    Self-perception and students’ academic performance in Economics

2.4    Chapter Summary


3.1    Area of the study

3.2    Design of the study

3.3    Population of the study

3.4    Sample and sampling technique

3.5    Instrumentation

3.6    Validity of the Instrument

3.7    Reliability of the Instrument

3.8    Administration of instrument

3.9    Scoring of Instrument

3.10  Method of Data Analysis


 4.1    Data Analysis

4.2    Discussion of findings



5.1    Summary

5.2    Recommendations

5.3    Conclusion





1.1   Background to the Study

Students’ characteristics can be referred to as qualities that can be measured with test or derived from their academic or professional records. They indicate that students’ characteristics do not generally refer to the direct observation of their influence on their learning in terms of either student’s test performance, rather the approaches dealt within the scope of this research are those characteristics of students that might be identified and  used in the initial hiring of students to increase their performance.

Willis, (2004) indicates that the characteristics could include qualities of students that are viewed as personal such and mental ability, age, gender or as experiential. However, definition or concept of student’s characteristics is vague and ambiguous but characteristics is concept that defines emotional trends in response to affairs, person, location, events or ideas.

Other factors relate to individual characteristics such as self-concept, ways of control and achievement motivation. According to Wary and Newlin (2002), high motivation level, maturity and self-discipline are seen as necessary general characteristics of successful students for the achievement of education goals and objectives.

Willis (2004), a combination of cognitive style, personality characteristics and self-expectations is asserted to be able to predict the achievement of students in schools. By this study, it is aimed to determine the self-efficacy beliefs foe education success, achievement goals.

There has been many works performed on student’s characteristics and academic performance. In some of the oxford, Re-park-oh and Sumrall’s  in the Japanese language program published through satellite television has been shown that student’ characteristics like motivation learning styles, gender and learning strategies played a very important role in academic achievement of students.

Lim (2001) have compared high achieving and low achieving among Economics students in secondary schools, according to their study habits system, other commitment and self perception have shown that motivation is a factor affecting performance. As well as these students characteristics mentioned above self-efficacy studies are also very popular in secondary schools.

Some of these can be summed up as such Joo, Bong and Choi (2000) examined effect of student characteristics on performance in web-based instruction (NBI) and found that students self-efficacy for self-regulated learning position related to his/her academic self-efficacy strategy use, and internet self-efficacy in a work aiming to form a model that can predict the satisfaction of web-based and their intension in Economics.

 Lein (2001) has indicated that self-efficacy in computer knowledge was the only statistically significant variable that can help predict the performance.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

The issue of poor academic performance of students in Economics has been of much that it has led to the widely acclaimed fallen standard of education in Oron local government and Akwa Ibom State at large.

Considering government huge investment in public education, its output in terms of quality of students has been observe to be unequal with government expenditure. Consequent upon the observed deterioration in academic performance, characteristics and values of secondary school students wonder if the high failure rates and the poor quality of the students is not a reflection of learning styles, self-efficacy and student’s perception.

In other words, the indiscipline among students in classroom could be responsible for the observed poor performance of students, therefore this study was designed to examine students characteristics and their academic performance in Economics in Oron local government area of Akwa Ibom State.

1.3   Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine students’ characteristics and academic performance in Economics in selected secondary schools in Oron local government area. Specifically, the study aims at:

  1. To examine whether self-efficacy influence student’s academic performance in Economics.
  2. To assess whether learning style influences students academic performance in Economics.
  3. To ascertain whether students’ perception influence students’ academic performance in Economics.

1.4   Significance of the Study       

The study therefore is significant in the following ways:

  1. For students; it will provide peer groups with Suggestion and feedback about what they should think and how they should behave in social situations.
  2. Parents; it will enable parents to pay a large role in how students function in everyday activities.
  3. Teachers; it is vital for education-related professionals to understand the complex aspects to peer group characteristics in order to influence negative attitude towards academic performance.
  4. Finally, this study will enable the researcher to focus on the topic for a further research.

 1.5   Research Questions                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            

To aid this study, the following research questions were formulated:

  1. To what extent does self-efficacy influence students’ academic performance in Economics?
  2. Does learning style influence student’s academic performance in Economics?
  3. How does student’s perception influence their academic performance in Economics?

1.6   Limitation of the Study

This research study encountered some impediments which were unavoidable, some of these problems are:

  1. Lack of finance to carry out the research work to a wider area.
  2. Time factor and mobility had its effects on the efforts of making an enhancive study.

1.7   Definition of Terms

To set the stage for our survey of factors responsible for students’ characteristics and their academic performances; it present working definitions of the following terms.

Performance: Accomplishing or achievement of specific goals, objectives or set mark in any academic endeavours. It is one of the most common criteria of evaluating effectiveness of school activities.

 Behaviour: Way of behaving, manners and living within the school environment and treatment shown toward others.

Peer group: Children with common interest, probably with common social position that are usually of the same age.

Self-efficacy: Refers to an individual’s expectancy in his or her capability or organize and execute the behaviour needed to successful complete a task.

Self perception: Is an individual’s awareness of his/her own density.

Characteristics: refers to as qualities that can be measured with test or derived from their performance or professional records.

Attitude: This includes the learner’s traits as a biological entity, action and behaviours as a social being and psychological properties of an individual.

Secondary school: This refers to a school for young people between the ages of 11 and 16 or 18.

Students: This is a person who is studying in a school especially in a secondary school, colleges or higher institution.

Teacher: One who teaches or one whose profession or occupation is teaching.

Influence: This is the power to affect somebody’s character, beliefs, or action through example.

 Learning: This is a relatively, permanent change in behaviour as a result of experience.

Teaching: Voluntary or intentional activity aimed at inducing learning.

Concepts: This refers to ideas or principles or facts in Economics.

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