SCHOOL LOCATION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS IN BIOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
This study was designed to examine the influence of school location on academic achievement of students in Biology in secondary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area. Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Quasi-experimental research design was adopted for the study. The population for this study consisted of all SS2 Biology students in the study area. Simple random sampling technique was used to select one hundred and twenty (120) Biology students from four (4) public secondary schools using intact classes.
Instrument adopted for data collection was students raw score while the data collected for this study were analyzed using independent t-test statistical tool. The result revealed that students who are in urban schools performed academically better than their counterparts who are in rural schools.
Moreover, it was also revealed that no significant difference exist between the academic achievement of male and female students who are in urban schools. Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made among others that; Schools in the rural location should be well equipped by the government to avoid students migrating to urban areas which may cause over-crowding. Furthermore, government should post good and qualify teachers to teach in the rural schools to avoid students leaving such school because of poor teaching method and other reasons.
- Background to the Study
The school is institution with a formal curriculum with the purpose of imparting knowledge to the learners. It provides an avenue for interaction in the teaching and learning process. There are many factors to be considered in sitting a school. One of this is the location of the school. According to Schwartz (2014), school location refers to the particular place a school is situated.
Apart from the geographical consideration, schools can be classified in terms of location either as urban or rural school. Some studies have considered locational planning and their attendant consequences on students academic performance in Nigeria. According to Mbaekwe (2016), these studies were intended to assist educational authorities in deciding where to locate a particular school and to determine how each school location should be funded, managed and staffed for optimum performance.
Brylan and Messwan (2014) noted that rural schools were inferior and lacking in the range of facilities. They also noted that these schools have high turnover of staff and therefore suffered from lack of continuity in curriculum implementation.
The urban or rural location of the school has an influence on the teaching/learning process in school which affects the academic achievement of students significantly (Nisbet, 2016). However, most schools in the urban areas are well staffed as compared to those in the rural area since everyone wants to work in the urban centres due to technology which is high in the urban areas as compared to the rural areas.
Obe (2012) observed a significant difference in the academic performance of 480 primary six pupils in their aptitude sub-test of National Common Entrance Examination into secondary schools. He concluded that children from urban schools were superior to their counterparts from rural schools. This view was supported by Owoeye (2012) who noted that there was a significant difference between the academic performance of students in rural and urban schools in public examination.
However, Ajayi and Ogunyemi (2015) differed and noted that there was no significant difference in students’ academic achievement from rural and urban areas. Also, Yusuf and Adigun (2013), found out in a survey of 40 secondary schools in Ekiti State that school location does not influence the academic performance of students.
Based on this background, this study examines school location and academic achievement of students in Biology in secondary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The purpose of establishing a school is to bring about the transmission of knowledge as expressed in a given curriculum. One way of measuring the level to which curriculum objectives have been achieved is through the academic performance of the students, not only in internal but in external examinations such as those administered by the West African Examination Council (WAEC), National Examination Council (NECO) and the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB).
The cause of this poor performance has been attributed to so many factors such as home factors, school factors, teachers factors, teaching methods, students’ factors such as school location etc.
Thus, it motivated the researcher to investigate on school location and academic achievement of students in Biology in secondary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to examine the influence of school location and academic achievement of students in Biology in secondary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area. Specifically, the study sought to;
(i) examine the difference between the academic achievement of students who are in urban schools and those who are in rural schools.
(ii) examine the difference between the academic achievement of male and female students who are in urban schools.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to guide the study;
- How does rural and urban location influence student’s academic achievement in Biology in secondary schools ?
- How does gender (male and female) influence student’s academic achievement in Biology in secondary schools ?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study;
(i) There is no significant difference between the academic achievement who are in urban school and those who are in rural schools.
(ii) There is no significant difference between the academic achievement of male and female students who are in urban schools.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of this research study will be beneficial to the students, teachers, educational planners and other researchers in the following ways;
- This study will be of use mostly to parents who seek for admission for the children.
- It will help them to determine if the location of the school really affect students’ academic achievement of the students.
- The findings of the study will also help the government in determining where schools are to be sited and in the distribution of materials and staff as they may affect the functioning of the school.
- Educational planners will develop the curriculum to suit with the location of the schools.
- This study will also serve as a reference material to other researchers who will carryout research on this topic or similar topic.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
This study is delimited to only the SS2 Biology students in the study area. The sub-variables adopted in this study include urban and rural school location and gender (male and female) who are expose to urban schools.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The following challenges were confronted by the researcher during the process of conducting this research study;
(i) Time constraint: The period of time given for the completion of this study was not enough in that the researcher had other school activities to carryout as at the time of this study.
(ii) Financial constraint: The high cost of transportation to visit the selected schools for this study posed a serious challenges to the researcher.
(iii) School Location: The long distance between the schools selected for the study was also a problem because some of the schools were located in the rural area.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms were defined as they are utilized in this study;
- School location: This is the particular geographical area in which a school is sited. It is grouped into the urban and rural schools.
- Urban schools: This refers to schools where there are some basic amenities e.g. electricity, good pipe-borne waters etc.
- Rural Area: This refers to schools where there are no basic amenities for the benefit of individual citizenry.
- Academic Achievement: This is the outcome of learning measure through test or examination at the end of each academic session.
- Gender: The state of being male or female.